Embedded Systems Design

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Embedded Systems Design


Embedded Systems Design



TEXT BOOK Embedded Systems Design Second edition by Steve Heath

1 What is an embedded system


What is an embedded system?
Inside the embedded system

2 Embedded processors


Embedded processors
8 bit accumulator processors
Example 8 bit architectures: Z80, Z80 programming model, MC6800
Microcontrollers: MC68HC05, MC68HC11 - Architecture
Data processors: Complex instructions, microcode and nanocode
INTEL 80286
INTEL 80386DX
INTEL 80486
Intel Pentium
Motorola MC68000 and its hardware
Motorola MC68020
Motorola MC68030
The MC68040
Integrated processors
RISC processors
The Berkeley RISC model
Sun SPARC RISC processor
The Stanford RISC model
The MPC603 block diagram
The ARM RISC architecture
Digital signal processors
DSP basic architecture
Choosing a processor

3 Memory systems


Memory systems and Memory technologies

4 Basic peripherals


Parallel ports
Timer/counters
8253 timer modes
MC68230 modes
Timer processors
Real-time clocks
Serial ports
Serial peripheral interface
I2C bus
What is an RS232 serial port?
Asynchronous flow control
UART implementations
DMA controllers
A generic DMA controller
DMA controller models
Channels and control blocks
Sharing bus bandwidth
DMA implementations

5 Interfacing to the analogue world


Analogue to digital conversion techniques
Sample rates and size: Irregular sampling errors, Nyquistís theorem
Codecs: Linear, A-law and Inf-law, DPCM and ADPCM
Power control in Interfacing to the analogue

6 Interrupts and exceptions


What is an interrupt?
Interrupt sources
Recognising an interrupt
The interrupt mechanism
MC68000 interrupts
RISC exceptions
Fast interrupts
Interrupt controllers
Instruction restart and continuation
Interrupt latency
Doís and Doníts - Interrupts and exceptions

7 Real


What are operating systems?
Operating system internals
Multitasking operating systems
What is a real-time operating system?
Task swapping methods
Scheduler algorithms
Priority inversion
Tasks, threads and processes
Exceptions
Memory model
Memory management address translation
Choosing an operating system
Commercial operating systems
Windows NT characteristics
Resource protection
Linux
Disk partitioning
The Linux disk partitioning
Linux software structure, Physical and Memory management
Linux limitations
eLinux

8 Writing software for embedded systems


Writing software for embedded systems
The compilation process
Native versus cross-compilers
Run-time libraries
Writing a library
Using alternative libraries
Using a standard library
Porting kernels
C extensions for embedded systems
Downloading- Writing software for embedded systems

9 Emulation and debugging techniques


Debugging techniques
High level language simulation
Low level simulation
Onboard debugger
Task level debugging
Symbolic debug
Emulation
Optimisation problems in Emulation techniques
Xray - Emulation technique
The role of the development system: Floating point and memory management functions
Emulation techniques: BDM, OnCE, JTAG

10 Buffering and other data structures


What is a buffer?
Linear buffers
Directional buffers
Double buffering
Buffer exchange
Linked lists - Buffering
FIFOs and Circular buffers
Buffer underrun and overrun
Allocating buffer memory
Memory leakage in Buffering

11 Memory and performance trade


The effect of memory wait states
Single cycle processor with large external memory
Reducing the cost of memory access

12 Software examples


Benchmark example - Embedded Systems
Creating software state machines

13 Design examples


Burglar alarm system
Burglar alarm system

14 Real time without a RTOS


Choosing the software environment
Deriving real-time performance from a non-real-time system
Scheduling the data sampling
Sampling the data- Real-time without a RTOS
Controlling from an external switch
Problems- Real-time without a RTOS
Program listing- Real-time without a RTOS



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