| Botany |

Plant Biology

Important questions and answers, Question Paper download, Online Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki

Plant Biology

| Botany |

Plant Biology


Plant Biology: Introduction
What is a plant?
Unifying features of plants

The plant cell

Structure of the plant cell


Structure of Plant cell wall
Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria
Structure of Plant cell Membranes
Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome
Plant Cell division
Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues

Vegetative anatomy

Vegetative anatomy of Roots
Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth
Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth
Vegetative anatomy of Leaves

Reproductive anatomy

Reproductive anatomy of flower
Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules
Reproductive anatomy of the seed
Reproductive anatomy of Fruits

Physiology and regulation

Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation
Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation

Growth and development

Features of Plant growth and development
Biochemistry of plant growth regulation
Auxins: Hormones in plants
Ethylene: Hormones in plants
Gibberellins: Hormones in plants
Cytokinins: Hormones in plants
Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants
Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers

Sensing and responding to the environment

Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis
Nastic responses
Stress avoidance and adaptation

Floral development and reproductive physiology

Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development
Plant Breeding systems
Plant Self incompatibility and its Types
Seed development, dormancy and germination

Plants water and mineral nutrition

Plants and water
Water retention and stomata
Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant
Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants
Functions of mineral nutrients


Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light
Major reactions of photosynthesis
C3 and C4 plants and CAM
Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism
Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism

Plant communities and populations

Physical factors and plant distribution
Plant communities
Ecology of different growth forms
Plant Populations
Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere

Reproductive ecology

Ecology of flowering and pollination
Seed ecology
Regeneration and establishment
Polymorphisms and population genetics

Interactions between plants and other organisms

Nitrogen fixation in Plant Biology
Interactions between plants and animals
Fungal pathogens and endophytes
Bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses and heterokonts
Parasites and saprophytes
Carnivorous plants

Human uses of plants

Plants as food
Uses of Plants for construction
Uses of Plants in medicine
Uses of Plants: Uses of secondary compounds, Plants as symbols, Horticulture

Plant genetic engineering and biotechnology

Plant breeding
Plant cell and tissue culture
Plant genetic engineering

Plant diversity

Diversity and life cycles
The algae
Bryophytes: Vegetative structure, Water relations, Interactions, Human uses
Reproduction in Bryophytes

Spore bearing vascular plants

Early evolution, Origins and Life cycle of vascular plants
Clubmosses and horsetails
Vegetative structure of Lycopsida
Reproduction and Gametophyte in Lycopsida
Fossil Lycopsida
Vegetative structure of Equisetopsida
Reproduction and Gametophyte in Equisetopsida
Fossil Equisetopsida
The ferns
General characteristics of ferns
Eusporangiate ferns
Typical leptosporangiate ferns
Water ferns
The gametophyte of ferns
Ecology of ferns
Fossil ferns
Evolution of the seed: Progymnospermopsida, Seed plants

Seed plants

Early seed plants: Pteridosperms, fossil seed, Bennettitales and Caytoniales
Conifers: Ecology, human uses, Male and Female reproductive structures, Fertilization and the seed, Stems and roots, Leaves
Male and Female reproductive structures of Conifers
Cycads and Reproduction in cycads
Ginkgo and Reproduction in ginkgo
Gnetales and Reproduction in the Gnetales
Evolution of flowering plants
Origin of the flower
The earliest flowering plants
Early and Later evolution of flowering plants
Specialization in flowers
Evolution of vegetative structure, fruits and seeds
Classification and Three families of flowering plants
Mechanisms of Seed plants evolution

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