| Botany |

Plant Biology

Online Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki and important questions and answers

Plant Biology

| Botany |

Introduction


=> Plant Biology: Introduction
=> What is a plant?
=> Unifying features of plants

The plant cell


=> Structure of the plant cell

Structure


=> Structure of Plant cell wall
=> Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria
=> Structure of Plant cell Membranes
=> Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome
=> Plant Cell division
=> Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues

Vegetative anatomy


=> Vegetative anatomy of Roots
=> Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth
=> Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth
=> Vegetative anatomy of Leaves

Reproductive anatomy


=> Reproductive anatomy of flower
=> Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules
=> Reproductive anatomy of the seed
=> Reproductive anatomy of Fruits

Physiology and regulation


=> Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation
=> Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation

Growth and development


=> Features of Plant growth and development
=> Biochemistry of plant growth regulation
=> Auxins: Hormones in plants
=> Ethylene: Hormones in plants
=> Gibberellins: Hormones in plants
=> Cytokinins: Hormones in plants
=> Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants
=> Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers

Sensing and responding to the environment


=> Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis
=> Tropisms
=> Nastic responses
=> Abscission
=> Stress avoidance and adaptation

Floral development and reproductive physiology


=> Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development
=> Plant Breeding systems
=> Plant Self incompatibility and its Types
=> Seed development, dormancy and germination

Plants water and mineral nutrition


=> Plants and water
=> Water retention and stomata
=> Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant
=> Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants
=> Functions of mineral nutrients

Metabolism


=> Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light
=> Major reactions of photosynthesis
=> C3 and C4 plants and CAM
=> Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism
=> Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism

Plant communities and populations


=> Physical factors and plant distribution
=> Plant communities
=> Ecology of different growth forms
=> Plant Populations
=> Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere

Reproductive ecology


=> Ecology of flowering and pollination
=> Seed ecology
=> Regeneration and establishment
=> Polymorphisms and population genetics

Interactions between plants and other organisms


=> Mycorrhiza
=> Nitrogen fixation in Plant Biology
=> Interactions between plants and animals
=> Fungal pathogens and endophytes
=> Bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses and heterokonts
=> Parasites and saprophytes
=> Carnivorous plants

Human uses of plants


=> Plants as food
=> Uses of Plants for construction
=> Uses of Plants in medicine
=> Uses of Plants: Uses of secondary compounds, Plants as symbols, Horticulture
=> Bioremediation

Plant genetic engineering and biotechnology


=> Plant breeding
=> Plant cell and tissue culture
=> Plant genetic engineering

Plant diversity


=> Diversity and life cycles
=> The algae
=> Bryophytes: Vegetative structure, Water relations, Interactions, Human uses
=> Reproduction in Bryophytes

Spore bearing vascular plants


=> Early evolution, Origins and Life cycle of vascular plants
=> Clubmosses and horsetails
=> Vegetative structure of Lycopsida
=> Reproduction and Gametophyte in Lycopsida
=> Fossil Lycopsida
=> Vegetative structure of Equisetopsida
=> Reproduction and Gametophyte in Equisetopsida
=> Fossil Equisetopsida
=> The ferns
=> General characteristics of ferns
=> Eusporangiate ferns
=> Typical leptosporangiate ferns
=> Water ferns
=> The gametophyte of ferns
=> Ecology of ferns
=> Fossil ferns
=> Evolution of the seed: Progymnospermopsida, Seed plants

Seed plants


=> Early seed plants: Pteridosperms, fossil seed, Bennettitales and Caytoniales
=> Conifers: Ecology, human uses, Male and Female reproductive structures, Fertilization and the seed, Stems and roots, Leaves
=> Male and Female reproductive structures of Conifers
=> Cycads and Reproduction in cycads
=> Ginkgo and Reproduction in ginkgo
=> Gnetales and Reproduction in the Gnetales
=> Evolution of flowering plants
=> Origin of the flower
=> The earliest flowering plants
=> Early and Later evolution of flowering plants
=> Specialization in flowers
=> Evolution of vegetative structure, fruits and seeds
=> Classification and Three families of flowering plants
=> Mechanisms of Seed plants evolution



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