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Plant Biology -

Plant Biology

Introduction


-:- Plant Biology: Introduction
-:- What is a plant?
-:- Unifying features of plants

The plant cell


-:- Structure of the plant cell

Structure


-:- Structure of Plant cell wall
-:- Structure of Plant cell Plastids and mitochondria
-:- Structure of Plant cell Membranes
-:- Structure of Plant Nucleus and genome
-:- Plant Cell division
-:- Vegetative anatomy of Meristems and primary tissues

Vegetative anatomy


-:- Vegetative anatomy of Roots
-:- Vegetative anatomy of Herbaceous stems and primary growth
-:- Vegetative anatomy of Woody stems and secondary growth
-:- Vegetative anatomy of Leaves

Reproductive anatomy


-:- Reproductive anatomy of flower
-:- Reproductive anatomy of Pollen and ovules
-:- Reproductive anatomy of the seed
-:- Reproductive anatomy of Fruits

Physiology and regulation


-:- Arabidopsis and other model plants - Physiology and regulation
-:- Methods in experimental plant science - Physiology and regulation

Growth and development


-:- Features of Plant growth and development
-:- Biochemistry of plant growth regulation
-:- Auxins: Hormones in plants
-:- Ethylene: Hormones in plants
-:- Gibberellins: Hormones in plants
-:- Cytokinins: Hormones in plants
-:- Abscisic acid: Hormones in plants
-:- Molecular action of hormones and intracellular messengers

Sensing and responding to the environment


-:- Phytochrome, photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis
-:- Tropisms
-:- Nastic responses
-:- Abscission
-:- Stress avoidance and adaptation

Floral development and reproductive physiology


-:- Plant Physiology of floral initiation and development
-:- Plant Breeding systems
-:- Plant Self incompatibility and its Types
-:- Seed development, dormancy and germination

Plants water and mineral nutrition


-:- Plants and water
-:- Water retention and stomata
-:- Movement of nutrient ions across membranes in plant
-:- Uptake of mineral nutrients by plants
-:- Functions of mineral nutrients

Metabolism


-:- Photosynthetic pigments and the nature of light
-:- Major reactions of photosynthesis
-:- C3 and C4 plants and CAM
-:- Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism
-:- Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism

Plant communities and populations


-:- Physical factors and plant distribution
-:- Plant communities
-:- Ecology of different growth forms
-:- Plant Populations
-:- Contributions to carbon balance and atmosphere

Reproductive ecology


-:- Ecology of flowering and pollination
-:- Seed ecology
-:- Regeneration and establishment
-:- Polymorphisms and population genetics

Interactions between plants and other organisms


-:- Mycorrhiza
-:- Nitrogen fixation in Plant Biology
-:- Interactions between plants and animals
-:- Fungal pathogens and endophytes
-:- Bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses and heterokonts
-:- Parasites and saprophytes
-:- Carnivorous plants

Human uses of plants


-:- Plants as food
-:- Uses of Plants for construction
-:- Uses of Plants in medicine
-:- Uses of Plants: Uses of secondary compounds, Plants as symbols, Horticulture
-:- Bioremediation

Plant genetic engineering and biotechnology


-:- Plant breeding
-:- Plant cell and tissue culture
-:- Plant genetic engineering

Plant diversity


-:- Diversity and life cycles
-:- The algae
-:- Bryophytes: Vegetative structure, Water relations, Interactions, Human uses
-:- Reproduction in Bryophytes

Spore bearing vascular plants


-:- Early evolution, Origins and Life cycle of vascular plants
-:- Clubmosses and horsetails
-:- Vegetative structure of Lycopsida
-:- Reproduction and Gametophyte in Lycopsida
-:- Fossil Lycopsida
-:- Vegetative structure of Equisetopsida
-:- Reproduction and Gametophyte in Equisetopsida
-:- Fossil Equisetopsida
-:- The ferns
-:- General characteristics of ferns
-:- Eusporangiate ferns
-:- Typical leptosporangiate ferns
-:- Water ferns
-:- The gametophyte of ferns
-:- Ecology of ferns
-:- Fossil ferns
-:- Evolution of the seed: Progymnospermopsida, Seed plants

Seed plants


-:- Early seed plants: Pteridosperms, fossil seed, Bennettitales and Caytoniales
-:- Conifers: Ecology, human uses, Male and Female reproductive structures, Fertilization and the seed, Stems and roots, Leaves
-:- Male and Female reproductive structures of Conifers
-:- Cycads and Reproduction in cycads
-:- Ginkgo and Reproduction in ginkgo
-:- Gnetales and Reproduction in the Gnetales
-:- Evolution of flowering plants
-:- Origin of the flower
-:- The earliest flowering plants
-:- Early and Later evolution of flowering plants
-:- Specialization in flowers
-:- Evolution of vegetative structure, fruits and seeds
-:- Classification and Three families of flowering plants
-:- Mechanisms of Seed plants evolution