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Physics : Entrance Exam Study Material


Physics : Entrance Exam Study Material


UNIT ? 1 Nature of the Physical World and Measurement


  Scope of Physics 

  Physics, Technology and Society  

  Forces of nature  


  Derived quantities and their units  

  SI standards  

  Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols  

  Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities  

  Determination of distance, mass, time  


 Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis  

  Dimensional Analysis  

  Classification of Errors in Measurement  

  Measurement: Rounding off  

  Measurement: Significant figures  

  Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments  




UNIT ? 2 Kinematics


  Kinematics - Rest and Motion  

  Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) 

  Equations of motion 

  Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time graph 

  Representation of a vector quantities  

  Different types of vectors  

  Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors  

  Subtraction of vectors  

  Resolution of vectors and rectangular components 

  Multiplication of two vectors 

  Projectile motion 

  Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally  

  Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique projection) 

  Newton?s first law of motion  

  Three types of the inertia 

  Examples for Newton?s first law of motion  

  Newton?s second law of motion 

  Impulsive force and Impulse of a force  

  Newton?s third Law of motion  

  Applications of Newton s third law of motion 

  Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum 

  Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces 

  Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces  

  Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami?s theorem 

  Uniform circular motion 

  Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity  

  Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction 

  Applications of centripetal forces  

  Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding  

  Motion in a vertical circle  

  Motion on a level circular road 

  Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force  

  Potential energy and Kinetic energy  

  Principle of work and energy (work ? energy theorem) Statement  

  Conservative forces and non-conservative forces  

  Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision 



UNIT ? 3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion


  Centre of mass 

  Centre of gravity 

  Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium  

  Rotational motion of rigid bodies  

  Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body  

  Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes theorem 

  Moment of a force  

  Couple and moment of the couple (Torque)  

  Angular momentum of a rigid body 

  Relation between torque and angular acceleration  

  Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration 


UNIT ? 4 Gravitation and Space Science




  Newton s law of gravitation  

  Acceleration due to gravity  

  Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth 

  Variation of acceleration due to gravity  

  Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy 

  Inertial mass and Gravitational mass 

  Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet 

  Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy  

  Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites  

  Uses of satellites  

  Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch Vehicles (Rockets)  

  Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels 

  The Solar system  

  Kepler s laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods  

  Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets 

  Conditions for life on any planet  

  Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system 

  Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system 

  Milky Way galaxy  

  Origin of the Universe 


UNIT ? 5 Mechanics of Solids and Fluids



  Mechanics of Solids and Fluids  

  Intermolecular or interatomic forces  

  Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke  law  

  Experimental verification of Hooke  law  

  Study of stress - strain relationship  

  Three moduli of elasticity 

  Relation between the three moduli of elasticity 

  Determination of Young  modulusby Searle  method 

  Applications of modulus of elasticity 

  Pressure due to a liquid column  

  Pascal  law and effect of gravity  

  Applications of Pascal  law: Hydraulic lift and brake 

  Co-efficient of viscosity  

  Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow  

  Stoke  law (for highly viscous liquids)  

  Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille  flow method 

  Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force  

  Experiments to demonstrate surface tension 

  Molecular theory of surface tension  

  Fluid Surface energy and surface tension  

  Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble  

  Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity 

  Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise method  

  Factors affecting and Applications surface tension  

  Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy 

  Fluid Equation of continuity  

  Bernoulli  theorem  

 Application of Bernoulli  theorem  



UNIT ? 6 Oscillations


  The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM

  Important terms in simple harmonic motion  

  Dynamics of harmonic oscillations  

  Angular harmonic oscillator 

  Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring  

  Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube  

  Oscillations of a simple pendulum  

  Laws of pendulum  

  Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion  

  Types of oscillations 


UNIT ? 7 Wave Motion


  Characteristics of wave motion  

  Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion  

  Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave 

  Velocity of wave in different media  

  Laplace s correction  

  Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases 

  Equation of a plane progressive wave  

  Characteristics of progressive wave 

  Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level  

  Applications of reflection of sound waves  

  Applications of refraction of sound  

  Superposition principle of waves  

  Interference of waves 

  Experimental demonstration of interference of sound  

  Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats  

  Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves  

  Standing waves in strings - Sonometer 

  Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes  

  Resonance air column apparatus  

  Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications  



UNIT ? 8 Heat and Thermodynamics


  Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction 

  Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases  

  Pressure exerted by a gas  

  Degrees of freedom of molecule 

  Law of equipartition of energy  

  Thermal equilibrium  

  Molar specific heat capacity of a gas  

  First law of thermodynamics 

  Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) 

  Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) 

  Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion  

  Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion  

  Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes 

  Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's statement  

  Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations 

  Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences 

  Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation  

  Perfect black body   

  Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling 

  Surface temperature of the Sun  

  Angstrom pyrheliometer  


UNIT ? 9 Ray Optics


  Reflection of light  

  Image in a plane mirror 

  Reflection at curved surfaces 

  Total internal reflection  

  Applications of Total internal reflection  

  Michelson's method  

  Importance of velocity of light 

  Refraction of light  

  Refraction at a spherical surface  

  Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification 

  Combination of thin lenses in contact  

  Refraction of light through a prism  

  Dispersion of light and Dispersive power  


  Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer  

  Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism  

  Formation of rainbows  


UNIT ? 10 Magnetism


  Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements 

  Basic properties of magnets 

  Force between two magnetic poles 

  Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet)  

  Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet 

  Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet 

  Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field  

  Tangent law  

  End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer  

  Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer  

  Magnetic properties of materials 

  Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances  

  Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss  

  Uses of ferromagnetic materials 


UNIT 11      Electrostatics

    -    - Key Answer
Basic properties of electric charge    -    - Key Answer
Definition of Coulomb?s law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field, Electric Field Intensity (E)    -    -Key Answer
Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines of forces    -    - Key Answer
Definition of Electric potential and Relation between electric field and potential    -    - Key Answer
Definition of Electric flux and Gauss?s law    -    - Key Answer
Electrostatic induction    -    - Key Answer
Electrostatic induction, Capacitance of a conductor, Principle of a capacitor, Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor    -    - Key Answer
Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and construction    -    - Key Answer

UNIT 12      Current Electricity

Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity    -    - Key Answer
Drift velocity and mobility    -    - Key Answer
Relation between current and drift velocity    -    - Key Answer
Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors    -    - Key Answer
Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors    -    - Key Answer
Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell    -    - Key Answer
Comparison of emf and potential difference,Electric energy and electric power    -    - Key Answer
Faraday?s laws of electrolysis  Chemical effect of current  Verification of Faraday?s laws of electrolysis    -   - Key Answer
Electric cells and Voltaic cell    -    - Key Answer
Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell    -    - Key Answer
Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary cells    -    - Key Answer


UNIT 13      Effects of Electric Current


Applications of Joule heating    -    - Key Answer
Seebeck effect    -    - Key Answer
Neutral and Inversion temperature    -    - Key Answer
Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π)    -    - Key Answer
Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ)    -    - Key Answer
Thermopile and Seebeck effect    -    - Key Answer
Biot  -  Savart Law    -    - Key Answer
Tangent galvanometer  -  Theory and Construction of Tangent galvanometer    -    - Key Answer
Solenoid and Right hand palm rule    -    - Key Answer
Magnetic Lorentz force    -    - Key Answer
Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of Cyclotron    -    - Key Answer
Moving coil galvanometer  -  Principle, Construction, Pointer type moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer.    -    - Key Answer


UNIT 14      Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

AC generator (Dynamo)  -  Single phase and AC generator (Alternator)  -  Three phase    -    - Key Answer
Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current    -    - Key Answer
Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a transformer    -    - Key Answer

UNIT 15      Electromagnetic Waves and    Wave Optics

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life    -    - Key Answer
Uses of electromagnetic spectrum    -    - Key Answer
Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum, Absorption Spectra    -    - Key Answer
Fraunhofer lines  -  Fluorescence - Phosphorescence    -    - Key Answer
Theories of light - Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic theory, Quantum theory    -    - Key Answer
Scattering of light - Tyndal scattering, Raman effect    -    - Key Answer
Wave front - Huygen?s principle    -    - Key Answer
Condition for sustained interference and Young?s double slit experiment    -    - Key Answer
Newton?s rings  -  Experiment, Theory    -    - Key Answer
Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction    -    - Key Answer
Diffraction grating explanation with Theory    -    - Key Answer
Polarisation of transverse waves    -    - Key Answer
Double refraction    -    - Key Answer
Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid    -    - Key Answer
Nicol prism and Types of crystals    -    - Key Answer
Optical activity    -    - Key Answer
Specific rotation    -    - Key Answer

UNIT 16 : Atomic Physics

Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of electrons    -    - Key Answer
Properties of Cathode rays    -    - Key Answer
Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays    -    - Key Answer
Thomson?s method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an electron    -    - Key Answer
Millikan?s oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron    -    - Key Answer
Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks    -    - Key Answer
Rutherford?s α - particle scattering experiment    -    - Key Answer
Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks    -    - Key Answer
Bohr atom model    -    - Key Answer
Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram    -    - Key Answer
Excitation and ionization potential of an atom    -    - Key Answer
Shortcomings of Bohr?s theory    -    - Key Answer
Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks    -    - Key Answer
Production of X - rays  -  Modern Coolidge tube    -    - Key Answer
Types of X - rays: Soft and Hard X - rays    -    - Key Answer
Properties of X - rays    -    - Key Answer
Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X - rays    -    - Key Answer
Laue experiment    -    - Key Answer
Bragg?s law for X-ray diffraction    -    - Key Answer
Bragg?s X-ray spectrometer    -    - Key Answer
X - ray spectra  -  continuous and characteristic X - ray spectra    -    - Key Answer
Moseley?s law and Applications of Moseley?s law    -    - Key Answer
Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X - rays    -    - Key Answer
Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser    -    - Key Answer
Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level    -    - Key Answer
Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level    -    - Key Answer
Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser    -    - Key Answer

UNIT 17 :    Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity

Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation    -    - Key Answer
Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect    -    - Key Answer
Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current    -    - Key Answer
Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential    -    - Key Answer
Laws of photoelectric emission    -    - Key Answer
Einstein?s photoelectric equation    -    - Key Answer
Photoelectric cells and their types, applications    -    - Key Answer
de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron    -    - Key Answer
Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations    -    - Key Answer
Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference    -    - Key Answer
Special theory of relativity    -    - Key Answer
Einstein?s mass-energy equivalence    -    - Key Answer

UNIT 18 :    Nuclear Physics  83

Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size    -    - Key Answer
Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve    -    - Key Answer
Bainbridge mass spectrometer  -  Determination of isotopic masses of nuclei    -    - Key Answer
Nuclear force and Radioactivity    -    - Key Answer
Properties of Alpha α, beta β and gamma γ rays    -    - Key Answer
Radioactive displacement law    -    - Key Answer
Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons    -    - Key Answer
Artificial radioactivity    -    - Key Answer
Applications of radio-isotopes    -    - Key Answer
Biological hazards of nuclear radiations    -    - Key Answer
Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators    -    - Key Answer
Geiger  -  Muller counter: Construction and Operation    -    - Key Answer
Energy released in Nuclear fission    -    - Key Answer
Radioactive Chain reaction    -    - Key Answer
Atom bomb - Principle and construction    -    - Key Answer
Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses    -    - Key Answer
Nuclear power programme in India    -    - Key Answer
Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy    -    - Key Answer
Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers    -    - Key Answer
Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles    -    - Key Answer

UNIT 19 :    Semiconductor Devices and their Applications

Semiconductors: Energy band in solids    -    - Key Answer
Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy gap    -    - Key Answer
Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap    -    - Key Answer
Electrons and holes in semiconductors    -    - Key Answer
Intrinsic semiconductor    -    - Key Answer
Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor    -    - Key Answer
PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics    -    - Key Answer
PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier    -    - Key Answer
Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms    -    - Key Answer
Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator    -    - Key Answer
Light Emitting Diode (LED)    -    - Key Answer
Junction transistor    -    - Key Answer
Working of a PNP transistor    -    - Key Answer
Transistor circuit configurations    -    - Key Answer
Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration    -    - Key Answer
Transistor as a switch    -    - Key Answer
Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working    -    - Key Answer
Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias    -    - Key Answer
Single stage CE amplifier    -    - Key Answer
Multistage amplifiers    -    - Key Answer
Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and    -    - Key Answer
Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation    -    - Key Answer
Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit    -    - Key Answer
Essentials of LC oscillator    -    - Key Answer
Colpitt?s oscillator    -    - Key Answer
Integrated circuit (IC)    -    - Key Answer
Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels    -    - Key Answer
Basic logic gates using discrete components    -    - Key Answer
Operational amplifier (OP  -  AMP)    -    - Key Answer
Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP    -    - Key Answer
Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference amplifier    -    - Key Answer
Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO)    -    - Key Answer
Multimeter    -    - Key Answer

UNIT 20 :    Communication Systems

Propagation of electromagnetic waves    -    - Key Answer
Amplitude modulation (AM): Modulation factor, Analysis, Advantages, Limitations    -    - Key Answer
Frequency modulation (FM): Advantages and Disadvantages    -    - Key Answer
Phase modulation (PM)    -    - Key Answer
Radio transmission - AM, FM transmitter and AF, RF section    -    - Key Answer
Radio reception: simple, AM and FM receiver    -    - Key Answer
Television: Construction and Working of Vidicon camera tube    -    - Key Answer
Television: Scanning and synchronising    -    - Key Answer
Monochrome picture tube    -    - Key Answer
Monochrome TV transmission    -    - Key Answer
Monochrome TV receiver    -    - Key Answer
RADAR: Principle, Applications, Transmission and reception of radar    -    - Key Answer
Analog communication and digital communication    -    - Key Answer
Modem and Fax (or) Facsimile    -    - Key Answer
Wire and Cable    -    - Key Answer
Fiber optical communication: Advantages, Applications    -    - Key Answer
Satellite Communication: Merits and Demerits    -    - Key Answer






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