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Zoology : Entrance Exam Study Material

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Zoology : Entrance Exam Study Material

 

Part ? 1

 

UNIT 1. BIODIVERSITY

Biodiversity Explanation and Biodiversity in India -- -  - Key Answer
Taxonomic systems -- -  - Key Answer
Introduction to taxa and species -- -  - Key Answer
Phenetic method or Numerical taxonomy and Cytotaxonomy and Chemotaxonomy and Palaeotaxonomy Explaination -- -  - Key Answer
Nomenclature methods and Basic principles of nomenclature and Identification keys -- -  - Key Answer
Methods of grouping animals -- -  - Key Answer
Phylum : Protozoa, Porifera and Coelenterata or Cnidaria -- -  - Key Answer
Phylum: Platyhelminthes -- -  - Key Answer
Phylum : Nematoda and Annelida -- -  - Key Answer
Phylum : Arthropoda -- -  - Key Answer
Phylum Mollusca and Phylum Echinodermata -- -  - Key Answer
Phylum Chordata and Diversity and General Characters of Chordates -- -  - Key Answer
Classification of Phylum Chordata -- -  - Key Answer
Sub phylum : Vertebrata (Craniata) and Classification of Vertebrata - Class : Pisces and Tetrapoda -- -  - Key Answer
Class : Amphibia - sub phylum Tetrapoda -- -  - Key Answer
Class : Amniota - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda -- -  - Key Answer
Class : Aves - sub phylum - Tetrapoda -- -  - Key Answer
Class : Mammalia - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda -- -  - Key Answer
Monotremata, Marsupialia and Placentalia -Classification of Class : Mammalia - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda -- -  - Key Answer
Scientific Names of Animals -- -  - Key Answer
Plasmodium -- -  - Key Answer
Life cycle in the mosquito - sporogony -- -  - Key Answer
Control of Malaria -- -  - Key Answer
Types of Malaria -- -  - Key Answer
Earthworm - External features , External apertures -- -  - Key Answer
Earthworm - Body wall ,Body Cavity,Locomotion -- -  - Key Answer
Earthworm - Digestive System, Feeding -- -  - Key Answer
Earthworm - Circulatory System -- -  - Key Answer
Earthworm - Excretory Systemk -- -  - Key Answer
Earthworm - Excretory System -- -  - Key Answer
Earthworm - Nervous System -- -  - Key Answer
Earthworm - Reproductive System -- -  - Key Answer
Pigeon - External features -- -  - Key Answer
Pigeon - The wings -- -  - Key Answer
Pigeon - Exoskeleton : Quill feather -- -  - Key Answer
Pigeon - Endoskeleton : Flight muscles, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor or subclavius, Coracobrachialis -- - - Key Answer
Pigeon - Digestive system -- -  - Key Answer
Pigeon - Respiratory System -- -  - Key Answer
Pigeon - Circulatory system and Venous system -- -  - Key Answer
Nervous system and Sense organ of Pigeon -- -  - Key Answer
Pigeon - Urinogenital system and Male, Female reproductive organs -- -  - Key Answer

UNIT 2. CELL BIOLOGY

Cell Biology -- -  - Key Answer
Microscopy and Anton van Leeuwenhoek simple microscope -- -  - Key Answer
Compound light, Dark field, Phase contrast, Oil - immersion and Electron microscope -- -  - Key Answer
Cytological Techniques -- -  - Key Answer
Plasma Membrane -- -  - Key Answer
Mitochondria -- -  - Key Answer
Ribosomes -- -  - Key Answer
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum -- -  - Key Answer
Golgi apparatus -- -  - Key Answer
Lysosomes -- -  - Key Answer
Centrioles -- -  - Key Answer
Animal Nucleus or Human Nucleus -- -  - Key Answer
Chromosomes of Animal Nucleus or Human Nucleus -- -  - Key Answer
Cancer biology -- -  - Key Answer
Molecular biology of cancer -- -  - Key Answer
Types of cancer and factor causes cancer -- -  - Key Answer
Cancer and death -- -  - Key Answer
Management of cancer : Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy -- -  - Key Answer

UNIT 3. HUMAN ANATOMY

History of Human anatomy -- -  - Key Answer
The Integumentary System - Skin and hypodermis -- -  - Key Answer
The Integumentary System - hypodermis, Epidermis, Callus, Skin color, Hair, glands, Nails -- -  - Key Answer
Human Skeletal System -- -  - Key Answer
Structure of a typical long bone -- -  - Key Answer
Skull - Human Skeletal system -- -  - Key Answer
Vertebrae - Human Skeletal system -- -  - Key Answer
Rib cage - Human Skeletal system -- -  - Key Answer
Appendicular skeleton - Pectoral girdle, Pectoral girdle, Pelvic girdle or pelvis, Wrist, Hand, Leg, Ankle, Foot, Kinds of joints, Fibrous joints, Cartilaginous joints, Synovial joints -- -  - Key Answer
Human Muscular System and Types of Muscular System -- -  - Key Answer
Skeletal muscles - Human Muscular System -- -  - Key Answer
Shapes of muscles and Naming of muscles - Human Muscular System -- -  - Key Answer
Distribution of human muscles - Muscles of the human head, Muscles of the Neck region, Muscles of the Trunk region, Muscles of the upper limb, Muscles of the lower limb -- -  - Key Answer
Human Entire Digestive system process with diagram - Mouth or Buccal cavity, Tongue, Teeth, Salivary glands, Pharynx, Stomach, Small intestine, Duodenum, Jejunum and ileum, Liver, Gall bladder, Pancreas, Caecum, Colon, Rectum, Anal canal -- -  - Key Answer
Human Respiratory system with diagram - Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs, Thoracic wall and muscles of respirations -- -  - Key Answer
The Human Circulatory System - Systemic and Pulmonary circulations - Pulmonary circulation, Systemic circulation, Portal circulation -- -  - Key Answer
Components of Human Circulatory system : Blood vessels, Types of blood vessels, The Heart -- -  - Key Answer
The Human Heart structure with diagram -- -  - Key Answer
Human Lymphatic system - Lymphoid cells and tissues, Thymus, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Tonsils, The lymphatic circulation -- -  - Key Answer
The structure of a peripheral nerve : Central nervous system (C N S) Peripheral nervous system Autonomous nervous system , brain -- -  - Key Answer
Human Brain : Prosencephalon (Fore brain), Mesencephalon (mid brain), Rhombencephalon (hind brain), Brain stem, Pachymenix, Leptomeninges -- -  - Key Answer
The Eye - Sensory Organ -- -  - Key Answer
Ears (The organs of hearing) - The Sensory Organ -- -  - Key Answer
Endocrine system and glands : Pituitary gland (or) Hypophysis, thyroid, parathy roids, pancreas, adrenals, testes and ovaries -- -  - Key Answer
Urinary system : kidneys (renes), ureters, the uri-nary bladder (vesica urinaria) and the urethra -- -  - Key Answer
Male reproductive organs -- -  - Key Answer
Female reproductive organs -- -  - Key Answer

UNIT 4. GENETICS

GENETICS -- -  - Key Answer
Quantitive inheritance - GENETICS -- -  - Key Answer
Genetics : Sex determination in Human beings -- -  - Key Answer
Male haploidy or Haplo-diploidy mechanism -- -  - Key Answer
Genetics : Sex - linked Inheritance -- -  - Key Answer
Genetics : Pleiotropy -- -  - Key Answer

 

UNIT 5. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

 -- -  - Key Answer
Types of eggs -- -  - Key Answer
Cleavage and types - Frog's egg -- -  - Key Answer
Gastrulation in frog embryo -- -  - Key Answer
Organogenesis of Frog -- -  - Key Answer

 

UNIT 6. ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY

Corals - reef builders - ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY -- -  - Key Answer
Earthworm - Vermiculture -- -  - Key Answer
Uses and types of Beneficial Insects : Productive Insects - Honey bee, Silk worms, Lac insects. Helpful Insects : Insect - Predators -- -  - Key Answer
Prawns, Lobsters and Crabs - ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY -- -  - Key Answer
Pearl Oyster -- -  - Key Answer
Fishes - Nutritive value -- -  - Key Answer
Guano (Bird excreta) -- -  - Key Answer
Aquarium - Setting up an aquarium tank -- -  - Key Answer
Vivarium ( Zoo ) and List of important Zoos -- -  - Key Answer
Disease causing organisms - Vectors : Housefly - Musca domestica, Sand flies - Phlebotomus papatasi, Rat fleas - Xenopsylla cheopis, The human louse - Pediculus humanus, Mosquitoes : Anopheles, Culex, Aedes sp -- -  -Key Answer
Poisonous Organisms : Physalia, Scorpion, Centipede, Honey bees and Wasps, Poisonous fishes, Poisonous snakes-- -  - Key Answer
Poisonous snakes : Cobra, Krait, Vipers, Sea Snakes and Poison Apparatus of a Snake -- -  - Key Answer
Fouling Organisms -- -  - Key Answer
Pests - Pests of Crops : Cotton, Paddy, Sugarcane, Vegetables, Coconut palm, Stored grains, household goods -- - - Key Answer

 

UNIT 7. ORIGIN OF LIFE

ORIGIN OF LIFE - Theories -- -  - Key Answer
Geological time scale : Palaeozoic era, Mesozoic era, Cenozoic era -- -  - Key Answer
Fossils : Fossilization, Evolutionary significance of fossils, List of Important fossils -- -  - Key Answer
Extinct animals-mass extinction : Causes and Pattern of extiniction -- -  - Key Answer

Part ? 2

 

UNIT 1.       HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

Nutrition : Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.), Proteins(Polypeptides), Lipids, Vitamins -- - - Key Answer
Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.) -- -  - Key Answer
Proteins(Polypeptides) -- -  - Key Answer
Lipids -- -  - Key Answer
Vitamins : functions of vitamins and Vitamin Deficiency Ailments -- -  - Key Answer
Minerals, Water, Balanced diet, Calorie values, Obesity -- -  - Key Answer
The digestive system and The process of digestion -- -  - Key Answer
Dental Caries (Tooth decay) : Symptoms, Root Canal Treatment -- -  - Key Answer
Peptic ulcer and Hernia : Causes of Peptic ulcer and Types of Hernia -- -  - Key Answer
Appendicitis, Gall Stones, Hepatitis, Hernia, Peptic ulcer -- -  - Key Answer
Types of fractures, Mechanism of fracture, Healing of Bones in fracture, Dislocation of joints, Physiotherapy and rehabilitation, Arthiritis , Orthopedics, Rickets and steomalacia -- -  - Key Answer
Structure of a skeletal muscle, sarcomere -- -  - Key Answer
Mechanism and Types of muscle contraction -- -  - Key Answer
Benefits of aerobic exercise -- -  - Key Answer
Myasthenia Gravis Muscle Disease -- -  - Key Answer
Process of pulmonary respiration -- -  - Key Answer
Mechanism of Human Breathing : Expiration , Inspiration -- -  - Key Answer
Gaseous exchange in the alveoli -- -  - Key Answer
Herring  -  Breuer reflex -- -  - Key Answer
Lungs Disease : Tuberculosis (TB), Herring  -  Breuer reflex, Acute and Chronic Bronchitis -- -  - Key Answer
Human Circulatory System : Functioning of Human heart -- -  - Key Answer
Myocardial infarction : Symptoms, Causes, Risk factors -- -  - Key Answer
Angina pectoris -- -  - Key Answer
Angiogram : Coronary Angiography and Coronary Angioplasty -- -  - Key Answer
Atherosclerosis, Heart block, Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) -- -  - Key Answer
ICCU - (Intensive Coronary Care Unit) -- -  - Key Answer
Blood Pressure : Intensive of hypertension -- -  - Key Answer
Composition of plasma : Components with Functions -- -  - Key Answer
Types of blood cells or corpuscles -- -  - Key Answer
Human Nervous system -- -  - Key Answer
Human brain -- -  - Key Answer
Types of memory -- -  - Key Answer
Types of sleep -- -  - Key Answer
Human Brain Stroke and Brain haemorrhage -- -  - Key Answer
Alzheimer?s Disease, Meningitis (Brain fever), Conditioned reflex -- -  - Key Answer
Right and Left Human brain concept -- -  - Key Answer
Spinal cord functioning -- -  - Key Answer
Functions of Endocrine glands -- -  - Key Answer
Pituitary gland and The hormones of anterior pituitary -- -  - Key Answer
Thyroid gland and thyroxine -- -  - Key Answer
Human Insulin -- -  - Key Answer
Human Glucagon -- -  - Key Answer
Gonads : Testis and Overies -- -  - Key Answer
Focusing Mechanism in the Human Eye -- -  - Key Answer
Human eye : Errors of refraction -- -  - Key Answer
Retinopathy - Human Eye Disease -- -  - Key Answer
Human Eye : Cataract, Lens Replacement -- -  - Key Answer
Human Eye : Glaucoma, Nyctalopia Disorder, Infections, Symptoms, Treatment -- -  - Key Answer
EAR  -  Some Information -- -  - Key Answer
Mechanism of hearing - Human Ear -- -  - Key Answer
Defects of the Human ear -- -  - Key Answer
Human Hearing Aid -- -  - Key Answer
Noise pollution -- -  - Key Answer
Human Skin and Functions of skin -- -  - Key Answer
Functions of Human Skin Melanin -- -  - Key Answer
Human Skin grafting and Dermatitis -- -  - Key Answer
Human Tongue and Mechanism of Stimulation -- -  - Key Answer
Human Excretion -- -  - Key Answer
Human Excretion : tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion -- -  - Key Answer
Renal Failure, Dialysis and Kidney Machines -- -  - Key Answer
Human Kidney stone (Calculus) And Kidney transplantation -- -  - Key Answer
Diabetes mellitus : Symptoms, Causes, prevention -- -  - Key Answer
Functioning of male reproductive system -- -  - Key Answer
Functioning of female reproductive system -- -  - Key Answer
Female Menstrual cycle - 28 days -- -  - Key Answer
In vitro fertilization (Test tube babies) and Birth control -- -  - Key Answer
Contraception - Methods to prevention of pregnancy -- -  - Key Answer

UNIT 2.       MICROBIOLOGY

History of Medical microbiology -- -  - Key Answer
Structure of Viruses And Viral genetics -- -  - Key Answer
Viral Diseases -- -  - Key Answer
Cultivation (culture) of Animal viruses -- -  - Key Answer
Bacterial structure And Culture -- -  - Key Answer
Bacterial Genetics -- -  - Key Answer
Bacterial Diseases -- -  - Key Answer
Protozoan microbiology -- -  - Key Answer
Larval microbiology -- -  - Key Answer
AIDS (HIV) Structure, its control, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Control and Management -- -  - Key Answer

UNIT 3.       IMMUNOLOGY

IMMUNOLOGY : Innate Immunity (Non-specific) And Acquired Immunity (Specific immunity) -- -  - Key Answer
Primary Lymphoid Organ Thymus -- -  - Key Answer
Peripheral Lymphoid Organs : Lymph nodes, Spleen -- -  - Key Answer
Secondary Lymphoid Organs : Mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) -- -  - Key Answer
Antibodies - Immunoglobulins, Region of polypeptide chains, Transplantation immunology -- -  - Key Answer
Classification of grafts -- -  - Key Answer
Immune system disorders -- -  - Key Answer

UNIT 4.       MODERN GENETICS

Human Genetics - Karyotyping -- -  - Key Answer
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology) -- -  - Key Answer
Genetic Diseases -- -  - Key Answer
Human Genome Project (HGP) -- -  - Key Answer
Cloning : Differentiation, Cloning of Sheep (Mechanism), Ethical Issues, Merits and Demerits of cloning -- - - Key Answer
Transgenic organisms : Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) -- -  - Key Answer
Gene therapy -- -  - Key Answer
Bioinformatics : Definition, History, Applications -- -  - Key Answer
Scope of Genetic Engineering And Bioinformatics -- -  - Key Answer
Nucleic acid, Protein sequence databases And Genome sequencing, DNA library -- -  - Key Answer
Protein Structure, Protein Model And Uses -- -  - Key Answer
Human population and explosion - Issues -- -  - Key Answer

UNIT 5.       ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Reasons for the Explosion. Impacts Of Growing Population and Environmental -- -  - Key Answer
Global warming : Green house effect -- -  - Key Answer
Types of Greenhouse Gases -- -  - Key Answer
Effects of Global warming -- -  - Key Answer
Ozone layer depletion : Ozone hole, Preventing And Effect of Ozone depletions -- -  - Key Answer
Waste management -- -  - Key Answer
Waste management : Classification of wastes -- -  - Key Answer
Management of hazardous wastes -- -  - Key Answer
Management of non-hazardous wastes- Solid Waste Management -- -  - Key Answer
Biodiversity conservation (Biosphere reserves) Government and non Governmental organizations -- -  -Key Answer
Energy crisis and its environmental impact -- -  - Key Answer
Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis -- -  - Key Answer
Environmental impacts : Thermal, Hydel, Nuclear Power, Solar energy, Fossil fuels -- -  - Key Answer
Poverty and Environmental : issues, alleviation -- -  - Key Answer
Fresh water crisis and management -- -  - Key Answer
Freshwater resources -- -  - Key Answer
Freshwater shortages -- -  - Key Answer
Freshwater Management -- -  - Key Answer

UNIT 6.       APPLIED BIOLOGY

Important cattle breeds and their characteristics -- -  - Key Answer
cattle breeds : Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds, Dual purpose breeds, Draught breeds -- -  - Key Answer
Milch breeds (or) Dairy Cattle breeds : Sindhi (Red Sindhi, Red Karachi), Gir (Kathiawarhi, Surti) -- -  - Key Answer
Dual purpose Cattle breeds - Ongole : Nellore -- -  - Key Answer
Draught Cattle breeds : Kangayam, Hallikar, Jersey -- -  - Key Answer
Common diseases and control for Cattle -- -  - Key Answer
Poultry Breeds -- -  - Key Answer
Poultry Farming methods -- -  - Key Answer
Factors involved in brooding -- -  - Key Answer
Pisciculture : Characters of cultivable fish -- -  - Key Answer
Fish Pond : Types and Preparation of pond, Management and Feeding -- -  - Key Answer
Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu (India) -- -  - Key Answer
Stethoscope and Uses of Stethoscope -- -  - Key Answer
Sphygmomanometer -- -  - Key Answer
Haemocytometer -- -  - Key Answer
Urine - Sugar analysis -- -  - Key Answer
ECG-Electrocardiogram -- -  - Key Answer
Computed Tomography (CT)(OR) Computerized axial tomography (CAT) - Advantages and Uses -- -  - Key Answer
Types of Endoscopy -- -  - Key Answer
Artificial Pacemaker And Autoanalyser -- -  - Key Answer

UNIT 7.       THEORIES OF EVOLUTION

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Lamarckism -- -  - Key Answer
THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Neo-lamarckism -- -  - Key Answer
THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Darwinism -- -  - Key Answer
Modern concept of Natural Selection (or) Modern synthetic theory of Evolution -- -  - Key Answer

 

 

 

 

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