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Chapter: 11th 12th standard bio zoology Human Body higher secondary school

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Retinopathy - Human Eye Disease

Retinopathy is the disease of the retina, usually resulting from either diabetes mellitus or alternatively from persistent hypertension (high blood pressure). There are two types of retinopathy.(1). Diabetic retinopathy (2). Hypertensive retinopathy

Retinopathy

 

Retinopathy is the disease of the retina, usually resulting from either diabetes mellitus or alternatively from persistent hypertension (high blood pressure). There are two types of retinopathy.

 

(1). Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by tiny aneurysms (baloon like swellings) of the capillaries (tiny blood vessels) in the retina. New abnormal blood vessels which are fragile and bleed readily grow on the retinal surface. Haemorrhage into the vitreous humour may occur, fibrous tissues can also grow forward into vitreous humour. Treatment by laser surgery can often halt a progress of the conditon.

 

(2). Hypertensive retinopathy is characterized by narrowing of the retinal arteries. Areas of the retina may be destroyed and causes haemorrhage and white deposits may also occur in the retina. It may even lead to retinal detachment. Remedy is laser treatment.

 

Cataract

 

Cataract is the opacity in the lens of the eye. The normal lens allows light to reach the retina when it becomes opaque and does not allow light to reach the retina, the person is unable to see clearly. Cataract is due to (coagulation) changes in the delicate protein fibres within the lens, cataract never causes complete blindness but causes increased loss of transparency. The clarity and the detail of the image is progressively lost. The front part of the lens becomes densely opaque and whiteness is visible in the pupil.

 

The causes for cataract formation in the adult is related to aging, sun light exposure, smoking, poor nutrition, eye trauma, systematic diseases like diabetes mellitus, infection and injuries and certain medications such as steroids. Sometimes German measles in pregnant mothers causes cataract in the child.

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