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Chapter: 11th 12th standard bio zoology Human Body higher secondary school

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Contraception - Methods to prevention of pregnancy

Contraception - Methods to prevention of pregnancy
Contraception : Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy resulting from coitus.

Contraception :

 

Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy resulting from coitus.

 

A.  Barrier Methods

 

Prevents entry of sperms into vagina or uterus.

 

(a) The Condom: The male wears a condom which covers the erect penis, and prevents deposition of sperms in the vagina. Condoms are made of rubber from latex. Ejaculated semen is retained within the condom preventing their entry into uterus. In India thin condoms called Nirodh, are manufactured and widely used. Condoms can be combined with spermicides inserted into the vagina. Condom also protects against sexually transmitted diseases (STD) like syphilis, AIDS.

(b) The Diaphragm (cervical cap): Women can wear a vaginal diaphragm fitting into the vagina or a cervical cap fitting over the cervix. They prevent entry of sperms into the uterus. They are made of synthetic rubber or plastic, and are used in combination with chemical spermicides.

 


B. Hormonal Methods

 

Hormones are prescribed as pills, implants, or injections. Some hormonal contraceptives contain only progestin, which is a type of female hormone and some contain a combination of both (combined pill) progesterone and oestrogen and prevents ovulation. Hormonal methods are

nearly 99 percent effective. The effects of Hormonal method stops (interfere) the mechanism of ovulation. They can also stop the mechanism of conduction of ovum along the fallopian tubes. The hormones interfere in the thickening of the endometrium and they may also cause the formation of mucus in the cervix and vagina to prevent the penetration of sperms.

 

C. Mechanical Methods

 

The intrauterine device (IUD) and intrauterine system (IUS) are contraceptive devices inserted into the uterus. Copper-T is a synthetic T shaped device made up of copper and plastic (non irritant), is placed inside the uterus. This can remain for a period of 3 years. This also helps to give adequate time inerval between pregnancies.

 

D. Surgical Methods

 

Surgical contraception, or sterilization, is an operation that makes a person infertile. This surgery can be carried out in men (vasectomy) and women (tubectomy).

 

Vasectomy is the method of permanent birth control in male in which the removal of a part of the vas deferens and ligations are performed. It is simple in all aspects. Male sterilization is not immediately effective. The seminal vesicles still contain sperm after the operation, and a condom must be used until semen analysis shows that no sperm are left. Tubectomy is the method of permanent birth control in female, here a portion of fallopian tube is cut of and the cut ends are ligated to prevent fertilization. Female sterilization is effective immediately, but the risk of ectopic pregnancy is slightly increased.

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