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Chapter: 11th 12th standard bio zoology Human Body higher secondary school

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Angina pectoris

Angina is a term that describes a strangling or constrictive pain. Angina has become synonymous with the heart disorder called Angina pectoris. This heart disorder refers to chest pain caused by insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart muscle, usually a result of poor blood supply.

Angina pectoris : Angina is a term that describes a strangling or constrictive pain. Angina has become synonymous with the heart disorder called Angina pectoris. This heart disorder refers to chest pain caused by insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart muscle, usually a result of poor blood supply. Angina pectoris usually occurs when the demand for oxygen is increased during exercise and at the time of stress. The pain usually comes on suddenly. The pain ranges from a tight ache to intense crushing agony. It lasts for 30 minutes or more and it is not relieved by rest.

 

Causes (1). Inadequate blood supply to heart due to coronary artery disease such as atherosclerosis (2). Severe attack of anaemia which reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. (3). Polycythemia (Increased number of red blood cells) which thickens the blood, causing it to slow its flow through the heart muscle. (4). Thyrotoxicosis (a disorder caused by excessive secretion of thyroxine) can precipitate angina pectoris by making the heart work harder and faster than its blood supply will permit.

 

Angiogram

 

Angiogram is a special contrast X ray and can be used to detect an abnormality in a blood vessel such as a narrowing of a large diseased artery.

 

Coronary Angiography

 

Coronary angiography is used to image the arteries that supply the heart muscle with blood. Angiography can image narrowed or blocked coronary arteries, which are not visible on a normal X-ray. A local anesthesia is injected and a fine flexible catheter is passed within the femoral artery, through the aorta and into a coronary artery. A contrast dye is injected through the catheter and a series of x rays taken. The procedure is painless.


Coronary Angioplasty

 

Coronary angioplasty is an operation done to clear flow of blood when the coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked by fatty deposits with the help of a baloon catheter. Under local anesthesia, a guide wire is inserted through the femoral artery in the groin and up into the affected coronary artery. A baloon catheter is passed up the wire and the baloon is inflated in the narrowed area to widen it. Sometimes, a metal tube called a stent is inserted afterward. It keeps the artery open.

 

Coronary bypass surgery is an operation to circumvent narrowed or blocked coronary arteries by grafting additional blood vessels to transmit blood flow. During this procedure the heart is temporarily stopped and blood circulation and oxygenation is taken over by a heart lung machine.

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