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Chapter: 11th 12th standard bio zoology Human Body higher secondary school

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Diabetes mellitus : Symptoms, Causes, prevention

Diabetes mellitus is the metabolic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by insufficient or nil production of the hormone insulin by the pancreas.

Diabetes mellitus

 

Diabetes mellitus is the metabolic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by insufficient or nil production of the hormoneinsulin by the pancreas. Insulin is responsible for the absorption of glucose into cells for their energy needs and into the liver and fat cells for storage as glycogen reserve. Insulin deficiency may be due to 

(1) pancreatic disorders

(2) defects in the synthesis of insulin from Beta cells of Langerhans (in pancreas) 

(3) destruction of Beta cells and 

(4) genetic defects etc.

 

Symptoms


(1)             The blood sugar level is more than 120mg. in diabetic patients.


(2)             Untreated diabetes exhibits the following symptoms.

(a)Polyurea - excretion of increased quantity of urine.

(b)  Polydipsia - excessive thirst leading to increased consumption of water. 

(c) Polyphagia - excessive appetite leads to increased in take of food. In spite of over eating, diabetic patient looses weight.


(3)            Weakness and body pain are the common symptoms.

 

(4)             The body's inability to store or use glucose causes weight loss, insatiable hunger and fatigue.

 

(5)             Diabetes mellitus also results in abnormal (fat) metabolism.


(6)             Accelerated degeneration of small blood vessels.


Type's of diabetes mellitus

(1)Insulin -dependent type.

(2)Non-insulin dependent.

 

Insulin-dependent type: This type develops due to heavy viral infection which reduces the production of insulin.

 

Non-insulin dependent: This is due to inadequate amount of insulin production. Obesity (over weight) is the major reason. This type usually of gradual onset and develops mainly in people over 40. Recently insulin resistant diabetes is commonly noticed and reported in younger persons too.

 

Causes for Diabetes

 

(1)             Diabetes tends to run in families so it occurs in people who inherit the genes responsible for the insulin dependent form.

 

(2)             Viral infection that damages the pancreas causing the deficiencyof insulin.

 

(3)             Obesity is the major cause leading to development of non insulin dependent diabetes.

 

(4)             Severe illness such as pancreatitis and thyrotoxicosis causes diabetes.

 

(5)             Intake of drugs like corticosteroid drugs and diuretic drugs.


The preventive measures comprise

 

(1)              Maintenance of normal body weight through adoption of healthy nutritional habits and physical exercise.

 

(2)             Correction of over nutrition and obesity may reduce the risk of diabetes and its complications.

 

(3)             Alcohol and smoking should be avoided.

 

(4)             Control of high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol and high triglyceride levels.

 

(5)             Susceptible persons can prevent diabetes by avoiding the risk factors.

 

When diabetes is detected, it must be adequately treated.In order to maintain blood glucose levels within the normal limits one should maintain ideal body weight. It is achieved by balanced diet, physical exercise, frequent checking of blood sugar, blood pressure. Maintenance of body weight and visual acuity are some prognostic tips.

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