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Chapter: BIOLOGY (ZOOLOGY) Standard XII second year 12th text book Assignment topics question and answer Explanation Definition

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Appendicitis, Gall Stones, Hepatitis, Hernia, Peptic ulcer

Appendicitis : It is the inflammation of the appendix, leading to severe abdominal pain. Appendix is a small blind ended tube found at the beginning of the large intestine. This disorder is very common among adolescents.

Appendicitis

 

It is the inflammation of the appendix, leading to severe abdominal pain. Appendix is a small blind ended tube found at the beginning of the large intestine. This disorder is very common among adolescents. It is more common in developed countries where diet contains less fibre food. The inflammation causes blockage. The closed end of the appendix beyond the blockage then becomes infected by bacteria.

 

 

The early symptoms includes sudden pain in the upper abdomen, nausea with or without vomitting. It may also cause mild fever. If a treatment is delayed the appendix may rupture and result in infection in the abdomen. The serious infection is called as peritonitis. The treatment involves the removal of appendix by surgery.

 

Gall Stones

 

These are the stones of various sizes and content that form in the gall bladder. The stone formation occurs in about 1/10 people, over 40 years of age. The Gall stones are formed by bile. Bile is made up of cholesterol, pigments and several salts. Any alteration in the composition of the bile can cause the formation of stones. The stones are mostly formed of cholesterol.

 

There is no obvious reason for such a formation. However, obesity is a risk factor. High fat diet can also cause stone formation. In severe, complicated situations it may block the bile duct and cause jaundice.

 

Hepatitis

 

An acute hepatitis may happen due to variety of causes. Its manifestation is inflammation of the liver. Such inflammation may happen due to viral infection. Non-infectious hepatitis can happen due to excessive alcohol consumption. In early stage, the symptoms are not conspicuous. The symptoms include fatigue, poor appetitie, nausea, vomiting, fever and discomfort in upper right side of the abdomen. There is no specific treatment. People are usually advised to take rest, and avoiding drinking of alcohol.

 

Peptic ulcer

 

It refers to an eroded area of the tissue lining in the stomach or duodenum. The lining of stomach or duodenum are protected from the effects of HCl by a layer of mucous. If the mucous layer is damaged, the acid may cause inflammation and erosion of the lining. It is known as peptic ulcer. Ulcer is of two types namely, duodenal and gastric. Of the two, duodenal ulcer is more common. It occurs in people in the age group of 25 - 45 years. Gastric ulcer is more common in persons above the age of 50 years. Peptic ulcer is a very common gastric ailment.

 

Causes:- The ulcer is mostly due to infections by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. It may also be caused due to uncontrolled usage of aspirin or certain anti inflammatory drugs such as Ibuprofen. Ulcer may also be caused due to smoking, alcohol, coffiene and psychological stress. In severe peptic ulcer, upper digestive tract endoscopy is done to assess the extent of damage. A bleeding or perforated ulcer requires hospitalization. Common treatment of ulcer is aimed at healing the ulcer and preventing its recurrence. Life style changes such as giving up smoking and alcohol may be required. Anxiety, stress, strain and worrying should be avoided.

 

Hernia

 

Hernia is commonly called 'ruptures'. A hernia occurs at a weaker region in the abdominal muscle. Due to increased pressure in the abdomen, the muscles become streched at the weak point, the pressure may be due to lifting heavy weights, continuously. Due to hernia, a visible bulge can develop. It will contain fatty tissues or part of the intestine. Abdominal hernias are common in men having heavy manual job.

 

In hernia, a section of intestine may become twisted and get traped inside the bulge. The blood supply may be cut off. This is known as strangulated hernia. If it causes severe pain immediate surgery is needed. Hernia can occur in other areas of the body.

 

Types of Hernia

 

1.  Inguinial Hernia - a portion of the intestine pushes through inguinial canal. This region is the weak spot.

 

2.  Femoral Hernia - It occurs in the part of the groin where the femoral vein and artery pass from the lower abdomen to the thigh, women who are over weight (or) who have several pregnancies may be affected.

 

3.   Umbilical Hernia - It develops in babies, behind the navel due to weakness in the abdominal wall.

 

Hernia repair - For hernia often a simple surgery is needed. It is done by using local or general anaesthesia.


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