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Chapter: 11th 12th standard bio zoology Human Body higher secondary school

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Myocardial infarction : Symptoms, Causes, Risk factors

Myocardial infarction is a coronary artery disease which involves sudden death of part of the heart muscle due to blockage in the coronary artery. It may cause severe unremitting chest pain.

Myocardial infarction : Myocardial infarction is a coronary artery disease which involves sudden death of part of the heart muscle due to blockage in the coronary artery. It may cause severe unremitting chest pain.

 

Causes : The coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle with fresh oxygenated blood become narrowed. This narrowing is usually due to an accumulation of droplets of fatty substances, like cholesterol. The fibrous cover of the fat deposit sometimes rupture, triggering the formation of a blood clot. If this blood clot blocks the artery, blood flow to an area of the heart muscle stops, causing myocardial infarction and leads to death of tissue.

 

Symptoms 

(1) Severe heavy crushing pain may spread up to the neck and in to the arms especially the left arm. 

(2) Sweating 

(3) Shortness of breath

 (4) Nausea and vomiting 

(5) Anxiety sometimes accompanied by fear of dying.


 About one in five people experience no chest pain in myocardial infarction. However, there may be fainting, sweating and pale skin. This pattern of symptom is known as 'silent infarction'. This type of infarction is common in people with diabetes mellitus or those with elevated blood pressure.


Risk factors

 

1.Habitual cigarette smokers have a substantially increased risk of dying from myocardial infarction.

2.High blood pressure is a major risk factor and the risk increases with higher pressure.

3.  The risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease increases dramatically in those who are more than 30 percent overweight.

4.  A raised blood cholesterol level increases the risk. A high fat diet is also a factor.

5.     Physical inactivity is also a major factor.


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