Limitations of first law of thermodynamics
The first law of thermodynamics explains well the inter convertibility of heat an work. But it does not indicate the direction of change.
a. When a hot object is in contact with a cold object, heat always flows from the hot object to cold object but not in the reverse direction. According to first law, it is possible for the energy to flow from hot object to cold object or from cold object to hot object. But in nature the direction of heat flow is always from higher temperature to lower temperature.
b. When brakes are applied, a car stops due to friction and the work done against friction is converted into heat. But this heat is not reconverted to the kinetic energy of the car.
So the first law is not sufficient to explain many of natural phenomena.