Botany - 2

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Botany

TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS


=> TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS : Types of classification
=> Biosystematics nomenclature
=> Binomial nomenclature
=> Herbaria and uses, Importance of Herbaria
=> Bentham and Hooker's classification of plants : Dicotyledonae, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledonae
=> Merits and Demerits of Bentham and Hooker's classification of plants
=> DICOT FAMILIES : MALVACEAE - the cotton family
=> Botanical description of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
=> FABACEAE - the bean family
=> Botanical description and Economical of Clitoria ternatea
=> RUBIACEAE - the coffee family
=> Botanical description and Economic Importance of Ixora coccinea
=> ASTERACEAE - the sunflower family
=> Botanical description and Economic importance of Tridax procumbens
=> SOLANACEAE - the potato family
=> Botanical description and Economic importance of Datura metal
=> EUPHORBIACEAE - the castor family
=> Botanical description and Economic importance of Ricinus communis
=> MUSACEAE - the banana family Systematic position
=> Botanical description and Economical importance of Musa paradisiaca
=> ARECACEAE - the palm family
=> Botanical description and Economic importance of Cocos nucifera

PLANT ANATOMY


=> Classification and Characteristics of meristematic cells
=> Classification of permanent tissue : Simple and Complex tissue
=> Permanent Simple tissue Types : parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma
=> Permanent Complex tissue and Types : Xylem, Phloem
=> Phloem : Sieve elements, Companion cells, Phloem parenchyma, Phloem fibres
=> Epidermal tissue system and its functions
=> Vascular tissue system
=> Ground or fundamental tissue system
=> Primary structure of monocotyledonous root - Maize root
=> Primary structure of dicotyledonous root - Bean root
=> Primary structure of monocot stem - Maize stem
=> Primary structure of dicotyledonous stem - Sunflower stem
=> Anatomy of a dicot leaf - Sunflower leaf
=> Anatomy of a monocot leaf - Grass leaf
=> Secondary growth in dicot stem

CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS


=> Structure of chromosome
=> Types of chromosomes
=> Special types of chromosomes
=> Gene and genome
=> Linkage and crossing over
=> Significance of crossing over and Uses of gene mapping
=> Recombination of chromosome
=> Gene mutation : Significance, Classification, Mutagenic agents
=> Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
=> Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
=> Hereditary role of DNA - Bacterial transformation
=> Structure of DNA
=> Function and Replication of DNA
=> Structure of RNA and its types
=> Characteristics of genetic code and Central dogma of molecular biology

BIOTECHNOLOGY


=> Recombinant DNA technology
=> Gene transfer in plants
=> How DNA is cut?
=> Transgenic plants : foreign gene, Transgenic (modified) plants
=> Practical application of genetic transformation
=> Use of genetically engineered bacterial strain
=> Concept of Plant tissue culture
=> Applications of plant tissue culture
=> Basic techniques of plant tissue culture
=> Protoplast fusion : Isolation of protoplast - Mechanical and Enzymatic method
=> Single cell protein (SCP)

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY


=> Enzymes : Classification, Properties of Enzymes
=> Theories explaining the mechanism of enzyme action
=> Significance of photosynthesis
=> Site of photosynthesis
=> Photochemical and biosynthetic phases, Mechanism of photosynthesis
=> EXPERIMENTS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS : 1.Ganong's light screen 2.Test tube and funnel experiment
=> Plant Mode of nutrition
=> Chemosynthesis - Chemosynthetic autotrophs and heterotrophs
=> Plant Respiration and structure of ATP
=> Plant Respiration : Glycolysis
=> Plant Respiration : Krebs cycle and Significance of Krebs cycle
=> Plant Respiration : Electron transport chain
=> Plant Respiration : Pentose phosphate pathway
=> Kuhne's fermentation tube experiment
=> Plant growth and Measurement of plant growth
=> auxins and Physiological effects of auxin
=> Gibberellins and Physiological effects of gibberellin
=> Physiological effects of cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid
=> Photoperiodism and vernalization

BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE


=> BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE : Food production
=> Plant breeding : Aims, Major Aspects of plant breeding
=> Plant Breeding : Selection
=> Plant Breeding : Hybridization, Mutation breeding
=> Plant breeding : Genetic engineering
=> Role of biofertilizers and Benefits from biofertilizers
=> Plant Disease in Rice - Oryza sativa
=> Plant Tikka disease in Groundnut or peanut - Arachis hypogea
=> Citrus canker and Tungro disease of rice
=> Biopesticides and Biocontrol of insect pests
=> Genetically modified food : Edible, Edible, Edible antibodies
=> Bio-war
=> Bio-piracy
=> Bio-patent
=> Sustained agriculture
=> Medicinal plants including microbes
=> Commonly available medicinal plants and microbes
=> Economic importance Plants : Food, Rice, Oil, Fibre, Timber yielding plant



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