Botany - 2

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TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS : Types of classification
Biosystematics nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
Herbaria and uses, Importance of Herbaria
Bentham and Hooker's classification of plants : Dicotyledonae, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledonae
Merits and Demerits of Bentham and Hooker's classification of plants
DICOT FAMILIES : MALVACEAE - the cotton family
Botanical description of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
FABACEAE - the bean family
Botanical description and Economical of Clitoria ternatea
RUBIACEAE - the coffee family
Botanical description and Economic Importance of Ixora coccinea
ASTERACEAE - the sunflower family
Botanical description and Economic importance of Tridax procumbens
SOLANACEAE - the potato family
Botanical description and Economic importance of Datura metal
EUPHORBIACEAE - the castor family
Botanical description and Economic importance of Ricinus communis
MUSACEAE - the banana family Systematic position
Botanical description and Economical importance of Musa paradisiaca
ARECACEAE - the palm family
Botanical description and Economic importance of Cocos nucifera


Classification and Characteristics of meristematic cells
Classification of permanent tissue : Simple and Complex tissue
Permanent Simple tissue Types : parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma
Permanent Complex tissue and Types : Xylem, Phloem
Phloem : Sieve elements, Companion cells, Phloem parenchyma, Phloem fibres
Epidermal tissue system and its functions
Vascular tissue system
Ground or fundamental tissue system
Primary structure of monocotyledonous root - Maize root
Primary structure of dicotyledonous root - Bean root
Primary structure of monocot stem - Maize stem
Primary structure of dicotyledonous stem - Sunflower stem
Anatomy of a dicot leaf - Sunflower leaf
Anatomy of a monocot leaf - Grass leaf
Secondary growth in dicot stem


Structure of chromosome
Types of chromosomes
Special types of chromosomes
Gene and genome
Linkage and crossing over
Significance of crossing over and Uses of gene mapping
Recombination of chromosome
Gene mutation : Significance, Classification, Mutagenic agents
Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
Hereditary role of DNA - Bacterial transformation
Structure of DNA
Function and Replication of DNA
Structure of RNA and its types
Characteristics of genetic code and Central dogma of molecular biology


Recombinant DNA technology
Gene transfer in plants
How DNA is cut?
Transgenic plants : foreign gene, Transgenic (modified) plants
Practical application of genetic transformation
Use of genetically engineered bacterial strain
Concept of Plant tissue culture
Applications of plant tissue culture
Basic techniques of plant tissue culture
Protoplast fusion : Isolation of protoplast - Mechanical and Enzymatic method
Single cell protein (SCP)


Enzymes : Classification, Properties of Enzymes
Theories explaining the mechanism of enzyme action
Significance of photosynthesis
Site of photosynthesis
Photochemical and biosynthetic phases, Mechanism of photosynthesis
EXPERIMENTS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS : 1.Ganong's light screen 2.Test tube and funnel experiment
Plant Mode of nutrition
Chemosynthesis - Chemosynthetic autotrophs and heterotrophs
Plant Respiration and structure of ATP
Plant Respiration : Glycolysis
Plant Respiration : Krebs cycle and Significance of Krebs cycle
Plant Respiration : Electron transport chain
Plant Respiration : Pentose phosphate pathway
Kuhne's fermentation tube experiment
Plant growth and Measurement of plant growth
auxins and Physiological effects of auxin
Gibberellins and Physiological effects of gibberellin
Physiological effects of cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid
Photoperiodism and vernalization


Plant breeding : Aims, Major Aspects of plant breeding
Plant Breeding : Selection
Plant Breeding : Hybridization, Mutation breeding
Plant breeding : Genetic engineering
Role of biofertilizers and Benefits from biofertilizers
Plant Disease in Rice - Oryza sativa
Plant Tikka disease in Groundnut or peanut - Arachis hypogea
Citrus canker and Tungro disease of rice
Biopesticides and Biocontrol of insect pests
Genetically modified food : Edible, Edible, Edible antibodies
Sustained agriculture
Medicinal plants including microbes
Commonly available medicinal plants and microbes
Economic importance Plants : Food, Rice, Oil, Fibre, Timber yielding plant

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