The tibia (see Figure 3.30) is a large bone located medial to the fibula. The proximal end articulates with the condyles of the femur and the proximal end of the fibula. The distal end articulates with the tarsal bone—talus and the distal end of the fibula (laterally). The tibia and fibula, similar to the radius and ulna of the upper limb, are connected to each other by an in-terosseous membrane. The proximal, or upper end, is widened into a medial and lateral tibial condyle. A smaller projection, the intercondylar eminence, sep-arates the two condyles in the superior aspect of this widened end. The superior aspect that articulates with the condyles of the femur has a medial and lat-eral articular surface. Anteriorly, the proximal endhas a roughened area, the tibial tuberosity. This is where the patellar ligament is attached. The anteriorcrest, or border, of the tibia is a ridge that runs infe-riorly, down the center of the tibia. This is the ridge that can be felt on the anterior aspect of the lower leg. Distally, too, the tibia widens to form projections. The large projection, the medial malleolus, is the bony prominence seen on the medial aspect of the ankle. It articulates with the talus. In the lateral aspect, the dis-tal end of the tibia articulates with the distal end of the fibula at the fibular notch.
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