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When PCl3 is treated with excess chlorine, phosphorous pentachloride is obtained.
PCl3 + Cl2 → PCl5
On heating phosphorous pentachloride, it decomposes into phosphorus trichloride and chlorine.
PCl3(g) → PCl3(g) + Cl2(Excess)
Phosphorous pentachloride reacts with water to give phosphoryl chloride and orthophosphoric acid.
PCl5 + H2O → POCl3 + 2HCl
POCl3 + 3H2O → H3PO4 + 3HCl
PCl5 + 4H2O →H3PO4 + 5HCl
Phosphorous pentachloride reacts with metal to give metal chlorides. It also chlorinates organic compounds similar to phosphorus trichloride.
2Ag + 2PCl5 →2AgCl + 2PCl3
Sn + 4PCl5 → SnCl4 + 4PCl3
C2H5OH + PCl5 → C2H5Cl + HCl + POCl3
C2H5COOH+ PCl5 → C2H5COCl + HCl + POCl3
Phosphorous pentachloride is a chlorinating agent and is useful for replacing hydroxyl groups by chlorine atom.
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