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Hydrochloric acid(HCL) - Preparation, Properties, Uses | Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail |

Chapter: 12th Chemistry : p-Block Elements-II

Hydrochloric acid(HCL)

Hydrogen chloride is a colourless, pungent smelling gas, easily liquefied to a colourless liquid (boiling point 189K) and frozen into a white crystalline solid (melting point 159K).

Hydrochloric acid:


Laboratory preparation:

It is prepared by the action of sodium chloride and concentrated sulphuric acid.

NaCl + H2SO4 NaHSO4 + HCl

NaHSO4 + NaCl → Na2SO4 + HCl

Dry hydrochloric acid is obtained by passing the gas through conc. sulphuric acid


Properties:

Hydrogen chloride is a colourless, pungent smelling gas, easily liquefied to a colourless liquid (boiling point 189K) and frozen into a white crystalline solid (melting point 159K). It is extremely soluble in water.

HCl (g) + H2O (l) → H3O+ + Cl-


Chemical properties:

Like all acids it liberates hydrogen gas from metals and carbon dioxide from carbonate and bicarbonate salts.

Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2

Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2

Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2

CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2

NaHCO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O

It liberates sulphur dioxide from sodium sulphate

Na2SO4 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O + SO2

When three parts of concentrated hydrochloric acid and one part of concentrated nitric acid are mixed, Aquaregia (Royal water) is obtained. This is used for dissolving gold, platinum etc...

Au + 4H+ + NO3- + 4 Cl-  → AuCl4- + NO + 2H2O

Pt + 8H+ + 4NO3- + 6Cl- → [PtCl6]2- + 4NO2 + 4H2O


Uses of hydrochloric acid:

·           Hydrochloric acid is used for the manufacture of chlorine, ammonium chloride, glucose from corn starch etc.,

·           It is used in the extraction of glue from bone and also for purification of bone black

 

Tags : Preparation, Properties, Uses Preparation, Properties, Uses
Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail


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