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Chapter: Embedded Systems

Case Study of an Embedded System for Smart Card

Design Examples and Case Studies off Program Modeling and Programming withith RTOS

Design Examples and Case Studies off Program Modeling and Programming withith RTOS





1. Smart Card System Requirementsnts


Enabling authentication and verification of card and card holder by a host


Enabling GUI at host machine to interact with the card holder/user for the required transactions, for example, financial transactions with a bank or credit card transactions.




Received header and messages at IO port Port_IO from host through the antenna


Internal Signals, Events and Notifications


On power up, radiation-powered charge-pump supply of the card activated and a signal to start the system boot program at resetTask


Card start requestHeader message to task_ReadPort from resetTask

Host authentication request requestStart message to task_ReadPort from resetTask to enable requests for Port_IO


UserPW verification message (notification) through Port_IO from host


Card application close request requestApplClose message to Port_IO



Transmitted headers and messages at Port_IO through antenna


Control panel


No control panel is at the card. The control panel and GUIs activate at the host machine (for example, at ATM or credit card reader)


Functions of the system


The card inserts at a host machine.


The radiations from the host activate a charge pump at the card.


The charge pump powers the SoC circuit consisting of card processor, memory, timer, interrupt handler and IO port, Port_IO.


On power up, system reset signals resetTask to start.


The resetTask sends the messages requestHeader and requestStart for waiting

task task_ReadPort.



task_ReadPort sends requests for host identification and reads through the Port_IO the host-identification message and request for card identification.



task_PW sends through Port_IO the requested card identification after system receives the host identity through Port_IO.


task_Appl then runs required API. The requestApplClose message closes the application.


The card can now be withdrawn


All transactions between card-holder/user now takes place through GUIs using at the host control panel (screen or touch screen or LCD display panel).



Design metrics


Power Source and Dissipation: Radiation powered contact less


Code size: optimum. card system memory needs should not exceed 64 kB memory.



Limited use of data types; multidimensional arrays, long 64-bit integer and floating points and very limited use of the error handlers, exceptions, signals, serialization, debugging and profiling.


File system(s): Three-layered file system for data.



File management: There is either a fixed length file management or a variable file length management with each file with a predefined offset.


Microcontroller hardware: Generates distinct coded physical addresses for the program and data logical addresses. Protected once writable memory space



Validity: System is embedded with expiry date, after which the card authorization through the hosts disables.


Extendibility: The system expiry date is extendable by transactions and authorization of master control unit (for example, bank servee).




Performance: Less than 1s for transferring control from the card to host machine.


Process Deadlines: None.


User Interfaces: At host machine, graphic at LCD or touch screen display on LCD and commands for card holder (card user) transactions.


Engineering Cost: US$ 50000 (assumed)


Manufacturing Cost: US$ 1 (assumed)


Test and validation conditionss


Tested on different host machine versions for fail proof card-host communication




2. Classes and class diagram


Class diagram




Task_CardCommunication is an abstract class from which extended to class (es) derive to read port and authenticate.


The tasks (objects) are the instances of the classes Task_Appl, Task_Reset, Task_ReadPort and Task_PW.


ISR1_Port_IO, ISR2_Port_IO and ISR3_Port_IO are interfaces to the tasks



Other Classes


•        Classes for the network, sockets, connections, datagrams, character-input output and streams, security management, digital-certification, symmetric and asymmetric keys-based cryptography and digital signatures




3. Hardware Architecture



Smart card hardware



Smart Card Hardware


•        A plastic card in ISO standard dimensions, 85.60 mm x 53.98 x 0.80 mm. It is an embedded SoC (System-On-Chip). [ISO standards - ISO7816 (1 to 4) for host-machine contact based card and ISO14443 (Part A or B) for the contact-less cards.]


•        Microcontroller MC68HC11D0 or PIC16C84 or a smart card processor Philips Smart XA or an ASIP Processor. Needs 8 kB+ internal RAM and 32 kB EPROM and 2/3 wire protected memory.


•        CPU special features, for example, a security lock


•        CPU locks certain section of memory - protect 1 kB or more data from modification and access by any external source or instruction outside that memory

•        Other way of protecting - CPU access through the physical addresses, which are different from logical address used in the program.



•        Standard ROM 8 kB for usual or 64 kB when using advanced cryptographic features


•        Full or part of ROM bus activates take place after a security check only.


ROM Contains:


i.        Fabrication key and Personalisation key (after insertion of this key, RTOS and application use only the logical addresses)


ii.       RTOS codes


iii.      Application codes


iv.      Utilisation lock



•        EEPROM or Flash scalable – only needed part unlocks when storing P.I.N., unlocking P.I.N., access condition, card-user data, post activation application run generated non-volatile data, invalidation lock to invalidate card after the expiry date or server instruction


•        RAM – run time temporary variables


•        Chip-supply system using charge pump


•        I/O system



4. Software Architecture



Smart Card Software



•        Needs cryptographic software, needs special features in its operating system over and above the MS DOS or UNIX system features.



•        Protected environment -OS stored in the protected part of ROM.


•        A restricted run-time environment.


•        OS, every method, class and run time library should be scalable.


•        Optimum Code-size


•        Limited use of data types; multidimensional arrays, long 64-bit integer and floating points and very limited use of the error handlers, exceptions, signals, serialisation, debugging and profiling


•        Three-layered file system for the data


•        master file to store all file headers (file status, access conditions and the file lock)


•        A header means file status, access conditions and the file lock.


•        Dedicated file─ second file to hold a file grouping and headers of the immediate successor


•        Elementary file ─ third file to hold the file header and its file data.


•        Either a fixed length file management or a variable file length management with each file with a predefined offset.


•        Java CardTM, EmbeddedJava or J2ME (Java 2 Micro Edition) JVM has thread scheduler built in.


•        Java provides the features to support (i) security using class java.lang.SecurityManager), (ii) cryptographic needs (package java.security*).




5. SmartOS RTOS used as alternative to MUCOS



Smart Card OS


•        SmartOS─ assumed hypothetical OS in this example, as RTOS in the card.


•        Use for understanding purposes identical to MUCOS but actual SmartOS has to be different from MUCOS.


•        Its file structure is different, though it has MUCOS like IPCs and ECBs.



•        function unsigned char [ ] SmartOSEncrypt (unsigned char *applStr, EnType type) encrypts as per encryption method, EnType = "RSA" or "DES" algorithm chosen and returns the encrypted string



•        function unsigned char [ ] SmartOSDecrypt (unsigned char *Str, DeType type) encrypts as per deciphering method, DeType = "RSA" or "DES" algorithm chosen and returns the deciphered string.



          SmartOSEncrypt and SmartOSDecrypt execute after verifying the access conditions from the data files that store the keys, PIN (Personal Identification Number) and password.



6. Tasks and their priority, action and IPCs






Priority ─ 1


Action─ Initiates system timer ticks, creates tasks, sends initial messages and suspends itself.


IPC pending:


IPC posted: SigReset, MsgQStart


String Output: request-Header; request-Start





Priority ─ 2


Action─ Wait for resetTask suspension,


sends the queue messages and receives the messages. Starts the application and seeks closure permission for closing the application


IPC pending: SigReset, MsgQStart, MsgQPW, MsgQAppl, MsgQAppl-Close


IPC posted: SemPW


Output: request-password, request-Appl, request-ApplClose







Priority ─ 3


Action─ Sends request for password on verification of host when SemPW = 1


IPC pending: SemPW IPC posted: MsgQPW Input: request-Password






Priority ─ 8


Action─ when SemPW = 1, runs the application program


IPC pending: SemAppl IPC posted: MsgQAppl



7. Multiple tasks and their synchronization model



tasks and their synchronization model



8. Coding using SmartOS


Coding using VxWorks Adapted toto OSEK-OS Features


•Refer Example 12.4 in Section 12.4.5 Note: At each step, explanation for the set of statements given there.





We learnt


•        Smart Card hardware and software


•        Code design given using the a hypothetical RTOS, SmartOS, which has MUCOS features plus the embedded system required cryptographic features and file security, access conditions and restricted access permissions during code run.

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Embedded Systems : Case Study of an Embedded System for Smart Card |

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