Integrated circuit (IC)
An integrated circuit (IC) consists of a single - crystal chip of silicon, containing both active (diodes and transistors) and passive (resistors, capacitors) elements and their interconnections. ICs have the following advantages over the discrete components:
(i) Extremely small in size
(ii) Low power consumption
(iv) Reduced cost
(v) Very small weight
(vi) Easy replacement
ICs offer a wide range of applications and they are broadly classified as digital ICs and linear ICs*. Two distinctly different IC technologies have been employed which are monolithic and hybrid technology.
In monolithic integrated circuits, all circuit components both active and passive elements and their inter connections are made on the top of a single silicon chip. The monolithic circuit is ideal for applications in the situations, where identical currents are received in large quantities. Hence it provides lowest cost per unit and highest order of reliability. In hybrid circuits, separate component parts are attached to a ceramic substrate and the components are interconnected by means of either metallization pattern or wire bonds.
Typical chip sizes range from about 40 × 40 mils (a mil is 0.001 inch)
to about 300 × 300 mils depending on the complexity of the circuit. Any number
of components from very few in number to thousands can be fabricated on a
single chip. The integrated circuits are available in Dual-in-line package
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