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# Complex Numbers

a) Complex numbers in rectangular form b) Argand plane c) Algebraic operations on complex numbers

Complex Numbers

We have seen that the equation x2 +1 = 0 does not have a solution in real number system.

In general there are polynomial equations with real coefficient which have no real solution.

We enlarge the real number system so as to accommodate solutions of such polynomial equations.

This has triggered the mathematicians to define complex number system.

In this section, we define

a)           Complex numbers in rectangular form

b)          Argand plane

c)           Algebraic operations on complex numbers

The complex number system is an extension of real number system with imaginary unit i .

The imaginary unit i with the property i2 = ã1 , is combined with two real numbers x and y by the process of addition and multiplication, we obtain a complex number x + iy. The symbol '+ ' is treated as vector addition. It was introduced by Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855).

## 1. Rectangular form

Definition 2.1 (Rectangular form of a complex number)

A complex number is of the form x + iy (or x + yi) , where x and y are real numbers. x is called the real part and y is called the imaginary part of the complex number.

If x = 0 , the complex number is said to be purely imaginary. If y = 0 , the complex number is said to be real. Zero is the only number which is at once real and purely imaginary. It is customary to denote the standard rectangular form of a complex number x + iy as z and we write x = Re(z) and y = Im(z) . For instance, Re(5 ã i7) = 5 and Im (5 ã i7) = ã7 .

The numbers of the form öÝ + iöý , öý ã  0 are called imaginary (non real complex) numbers.

The equality of complex numbers is defined as follows.

Definition 2.2

Two complex numbers z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 are said to be equal if and only if

Re(z1 ) = Re(z2 )  and  Im(z1 ) = Im(z2) . That is  x1 = x2 and y1 = y2 .

For instance, if öÝ + iöý = ã7 + 3i , then öÝ = ã7 and öý = 3 .

## 2. Argand plane

A complex number z = x + iy is uniquely determined by an ordered pair of real numbers ( x, y ) .

The numbers 3 ã 8i, 6 and ã4i are equivalent to (3, ã8), (6, 0), and (0, ã4) respectively. In this way we are able to associate a complex number z = x + iy with a point ( x, y ) in a coordinate plane.

If we consider x axis as real axis and y axis as imaginary axis to represent a complex number, then the xy -plane is called complex plane or Argand plane. It is named after the Swiss mathematician Jean Argand (1768 ã 1822).

A complex number is represented not only by a point, but also by a position vector pointing from the origin to the point. The number, the point, and the vector will all be denoted by the same letter z . As usual we identify all vectors which can be obtained from each other by parallel displacements. In this chapter, C denotes the set of all complex numbers. Geometrically, a complex number can be viewed as either a point in R2 or a vector in the Argand plane. ### Illustration 2.1

Here are some complex numbers: 2 + i, ã 1 + 2i, 3 - 2 i, 0 - 2 i, 3+ ã-2, -2-3i, cos (ü/6) + isin(ü/6) and 3  + 0i. Some of them are plotted in Argand plane. ## 3. Algebraic operations on complex numbers

In this section, we study the algebraic and geometric structure of the complex number system.

We assume various corresponding properties of real numbers to be known.

### (i) Scalar multiplication of complex numbers:

If z = x + iy and k ã R, then we define

k z = (kx) + (ky )i .

In particular 0 z = 0 , 1 z = z and (ã1)z = ãz . ### (ii) Addition of complex numbers:

If z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 , where x1 , x2 , y1 , and y2 ã R, then we define

z1 + z2 = (x1 + iy1) + (x2 + iy2)

= (x1 + x2) + i(y1 + y2)

z1 + z2= (x1 + x2) + i(y1 + y2) We have already seen that vectors are characterized by length and direction, and that a given vector remains unchanged under translation.   When z1 = x1 + iy1      and    z2  = x2  + iy2 then  by  the parallelogram law of addition,thesum  z1  + z2 = ( x1  + x2 ) + i ( y1  + y2 ) corresponds to the point ( x1 + x2 , y1 + y2 ) .  It also corresponds to a vector with those coordinates as its components. Hence the points z1 , z2 , and z1 + z2 in complex plane may be obtained vectorially as shown in the adjacent Fig. 2.11.

### iii) Subtraction of complex numbers

Similarly the difference z1 ã z2 can also be drawn as a position vector whose initial point is the origin and terminal point is ( x1 ã x2 , y1 ã y2 ) . We define

z1 - z2 = z1 + (- z2  )

= (x1 + iy1) + (-x2 - iy2)

= (x1 - x2) + i(y1 - y2)

z1 + z2= (x1 - x2) + i(y1 - y2) It is important to note here that the vector representing the difference of the vector z1 ã z2 may also be drawn joining the end point of z2 to the tip of z1 instead of the origin. This kind of representation does not alter the meaning or interpretation of the difference operator. The difference vector joining the tips of z1 and z2 is shown in (green) dotted line.

### (iv) Multiplication of complex numbers

The multiplication of complex numbers z1 and z2 is defined as

z1 z2 = (x1 + iy1 )(x2 + iy2 )

= (x1 x2 ã y1 y2 ) + i(x1 y2 + x2 y1 )

z1 z2 = (x1 x2 ã y1 y2 ) + i(x1 y2 + x2 y1 ) .

Although the product of two complex numbers z1 and z2 is itself a complex number represented by a vector, that vector lies in the same plane as the vectors z1 and z2 . Evidently, then, this product is neither the scalar product nor the vector product used in vector algebra. ### Multiplication of complex number z by i

If z  =  x + iy , then

iz = i(x + iy)

=  ã y + ix

The complex number iz is a rotation of z by 90ù or ü/2 radians in the  counter clockwise direction about the origin. In general, multiplication of a complex number z by i successively gives a 90ô¯ counter clockwise rotation successively about the origin.

### Illustration 2.2

Let z1 = 6 + 7i and z2 = 3 ã 5i . Then z1 + z2 and z1 ã z2 are

(i) (3 - 5i) + (6 + 7i) = (3 + 6) + (-5+7)i = 9+2i

(6 + 7i) - (3 - 5i)  = (6 - 3) + (7 - (-5))i = 3+12i

Let z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = 4 + 7i . Then z1 z2 is

(ii) (2 + 3i)( 4 + 7i) = (2x4 ã 3x7) + i(2x7 + 3x4)

= (8-21) + (14+12)i = -13 +26i

Example 2.2

Find the value of the real numbers x and y, if the complex number (2 + i)x + (1ã i) y + 2i ã 3 and x + (ã1+ 2i) y +1+ i are equal

Solution

Let  z1 = (2 + i)x + (1- i) y + 2i - 3 = (2x + y - 3) + i ( x - y + 2) and

z2 = x + (-1+ 2i) y +1+ i = ( x - y +1) + i (2 y +1).

Given that z1 = z2 .

Therefore (2x + y - 3) + i ( x - y + 2) = ( x - y +1) + i (2 y +1) .

Equating real and imaginary parts separately, gives

2x + y - 3=  x - y +1 ã x + 2 y = 4 .

x - y + 2 = 2 y +1 ã x - 3y = -1 .

Solving the above equations, gives

x = 2  and  y = 1.

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12th Mathematics : UNIT 2 : Complex Numbers : Complex Numbers | Definition, Illustration, Formulas, Solved Example Problems