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Sources of water pollution - Microbiology of water

1. Sewage or municipal effluents (or) domestic effluents 2. Industrial effluents 3. Agricultural pollution

Sources of water pollution

The only source of potable fresh water nature provides is the rain water. This itself gets polluted by the action of nature, as water falls on land and runs as stream, gathering different types of minerals and suspended particles. In this running water, due to anthropogenic activities, more minerals, more chemicals and organic materials are added, that makes the water polluted. There are three main sources of pollution of waters.

1.           Sewage or municipal effluents (or) domestic effluents


2.           Industrial effluents


3.           Agricultural pollution


1.      Sewage or Municipal effluents


The quality of water after bath, kitchen work, washing of clothes and animals etc. a large volume of raw sewage discharged into the main stream pollute the river waters. Among the various sources of water pollution, sewage, the domestic waste containing decomposing organic matter is the major source and it accounts for 70 per cent of water pollution. Industrial effluents account for 15 percent of water pollution.


2.           Industrial effluents


The industrial effluents are classified under the following heads.

I.            Food and drink manufacturing industries


a.           Distilleries and sugar factories.


b.           Food processing units.


c.            Soap and oil manufacturing units.


II.         Chemical Industries


a.           Fertilizer and Chemicals, paints


b.           Drug and pharmaceuticals


c.            Insecticides and pesticides


III.     Engineering Industries


a.           Metallurgical industries.


b.           Wire making industries.


c.            Rare earths and minerals.


IV.  Other industries producing organic effluents

a.           Paper and rayon


b.           Rubber industries


c.            Textiles


d.           Plywood and hardboard industries


e.            Tanneries and leather industries

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