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Myocardial Infarction (MI)
A heart attack is a life-threatening condition that occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle is abruptly cut off, causing tissue damage. This is usually the result of a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. It occurs as a result of sustained ischemia, causing irreversible myocardial cell death (necrosis). 80% to 90% of all acute Myocardial Infarctions (MIs) are secondary to thrombus formation. Acute myocardial infarction is the medical name for a heart attack.
Myocardial infraction refers to a dynamic process by which one or more regions of the heart experience a severe and prolonged decrease in oxygen supply because of insufficient coronary blood flow, subsequently necrosis or death to the myocardial tissue occurs.
1. Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or heart attack (NSTEMI)
2. ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or heart attack (STEMI).
· Bad cholesterol, Saturated fats, Trans fat - intake
· Obesity - cause of 20% cases
· High Blood Pressure (hypertension)
· High Triglyceride level
· Diabetes and high blood sugar level
· Smoking causes above 36% cases
· Lack of exercise linked 7 to 12% cases
· The use of certain illegal drugs including cocaine and amphetamines
· A history of preeclampsia or high Blood pressure during pregnancy
The classic symptoms of a heart attack are chest pain and shortness of breath, the symptoms can be quite varied.
The most common symptoms of a heart attack include:
· Prolonged cardiac pain (severe, sharp stabbing, radiating to neck, shoulders and back)
· Collapse / Syncope / Fainting
· Hypotension (or) Hypertension
· Nausea and Vomiting
· ECG (Electro Cardio Gram)
· X-ray Chest.
· Serum Cardiac Markers Blood tests such as Troponin and Creatine KinaseMB (CK-MB).
· Angiogram with coronary catheterization to look for areas of blockage in the arteries.
· Coagulation Studies
· Nuclear imaging
· Made the patient in a comfortable bed and provide complete bed rest
· Administration of oxygen
· Starting IV line
· Monitoring ECG
· Administration of analgesics (opiates)
· Oral antianginal drug.
· Thrombolytic therapy.
· B-adrenergic receptor antagonist.
· Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)
· Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
· Vital Signs
· Provide comfortable bed.
· Oxygen administration
· Start Intra Venous (IV) line
· Intake and output chart
· Heart failure
· Cardiogenic shock
· Papillary muscle dysfunction leads to mitral regurgitation
· Ventricular Aneurysm
· Acute Circulatory failure
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