Infection and Infestation
In Integumentary system, skin, hair, and nails are prone to
different types of infections and infestations which needs to be diagnosed
early and treated promptly to prevent spread.
Definition: Infection is defined as the invasion and multiplication of
microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and parasites that are not normally
present within the body.
1. Bacterial skin infections - Bacterial skin infections often begin as
small, red bumps that slowly increase in size. Some bacterial infections are
mild and easily treated with topical antibiotics, some infections require an
oral antibiotic and good personal hygiene. Bacterial skin infections includes
Cellulitis, Impetigo, Boils and Leprosy.
2. Viral skin infections - Skin infection are caused by a virus are
called Viral skin infection.
Common Viral Skin infection include: Herpes Zoster (Akki).
Chickenpox, Warts, Measles and Molluscum contagiousum.
3. Fungal skin infections - Skin infections which are caused by
fungus, are mostly to develop in damp areas of the body, such as the groin,
nail and armpit. Common fungal infections are Athelete's foot, Fungal Nail,
Oral thrush and Diaper rash.
Infestations can be classified as either external or internal with
regards to the parasites' location in relation to the host.
External or ectoparasitic infestation is a condition in which
organisms live primarily on the surface of the host and includes mites, ticks,
head lice and bed bugs.
An internal (or endoparasitic) infestation is a condition in which
organisms live within the host and includes those involving worms
Worm infestations are long-term diseases that produce few symptoms
in their early stages and sometimes serious effects at well developed stages or
may be quite fatal at times.
Worms are generally classified as
Round Worms: is also known as “Ascaris”
Pin worms: Is also known as “threadworm”
Flat Worms: tape worm (teniasis)
Clinical manifestation of worm infestation:
Abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeplessness,
irritability, anemia and diarrhea
History collection: history of passage of worms
Stool examination: It is done to detect which type of worm
Albendazole (15mg/kg) or Mebandazole (100mg) twice Daily for 3
days irrespective of patients age.
Correction of anemia should be done with iron therapy
Complications - Intestinal obstruction,
Perforation, Jaundice, Appendicitis,
Pancreatitis, Ascaris encephalopathy, Liver abscess, Peritonitis
and Protein loss (kwashiorkar)
For Round Worm
Prevention of round worm infestation can be done by interrupting
Sanitary disposal of human excreta
Reduction of feacal contamination of the soil
Provision of safe drinking water, food hygiene, good personal
hygiene, improving habits of hand wash before and after defecation, avoidance
of open field defecation
The preventive measures include maintenance of personal hygiene,
careful hand washing with soap and water after defecation and before meal,
treatment of all infected family members
avoiding contact of contaminated soil by using foot wear
use of sanitary latrine for the sanitary disposal of feces to
prevent soil pollution
change in farming practice, that is not to use raw feces or
untreated sewage as fertilizer
Treatment of infected person, meat inspection, consumption of meat
with proper cooking, adequate sewage treatment and disposal creating awareness
about preventive aspects by health education