Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by inherited and /or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by the increased insulin resistance such a deficiency results in increased concentrations of glucose in the blood, which in turn damage many of the body's systems, in particular the blood vessels and nerves.
The term Diabetic mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbance of carbohydrate fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects of insulin secretion, insulin action or both.
• Type 1
• Type 2
• Gestational diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is also referred to as Juvenile diabetes Mellitus. It results from destruction of pancreatic β cells which produce insulin leading to absolute insulin deficiency.
• Environmental factors.
Most common form of diabetes. Body produces insulin, but do not use it properly, glucose doesn’t move into cells, they pile up in the bloodstream.
• Environmental factors
Slight elevation of blood glucose levels, regarded as indication that the person is at risk of progressing to Type 2 diabetes.
is defined as carbohydrate intolerance during pregnancy.
• Polycystic ovary syndrome
• women under age 25
• Family history of diabetes
• Overweight prior to pregnancy
• Hyperglycemia - Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia
• Weight loss
• Blurred vision
• Poor wound healing
• Recurrent infection
• Blood glucose estimation, fasting and random blood sugar
• Oral Glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
• Check HbA1c (GLYCOSYLATED HAEMOGLOBIN LEVEL)
• Maintain and control sugar level
• Insulin therapy
• Healthy life style – exercise and diet.
• Islet transplantation
• Oral Antidiabetic agents
• Lipid control
• Meal plan for Caloric restriction
• Weight reduction
• EXERCISE: Regularly scheduled, moderate exercise performed 30 to 60 minutes/day.
• Islet transplation
• Maintain a healthy lifestyle
• Oral hypoglycemic agent and injection insulin if needed
• Dietary management and exercise
• Physical activity
• Plan Increase fiber intake
• Monitoring blood glucose.
• Administering antidiabetics/insulin.
• Foot care.
• Monitoring for hyper/hypoglycemia.
• Offering snacks at bedtime if permitted.
• Lifestyle management
• Peripheral Neuropathy
• Micro angiopathy
• Autonomic Neuropathy
• Diabetic Keto acidosis (DKA)