Fibrosis, or scarring, is a condition where the wound healing is exaggerated. It is progressive in nature eventually leading to organ malfunction and death. Fibrosis affects nearly every tissue in the body. The growth of new capillaries into the inert material (exudates or thrombus), the migration of macrophages and the proliferation of fibroblasts resulting in fibrosis.
Pathological accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in fibrosis or scarring and thickening of the affected tissue.
• Cigarette smoke
• Chronic alcoholism
• Occupational hazards (silicosis, asbestosis)
• Chronic infection
• Fatty liver disease
• Hepatitis B or hepatitis C.
• Lung fibrosis or pulmonary fibrosis - occurs as a result of long standing infections such as tuberculosis or pneumonia.
• Cirrhosis of liver refers to the scar tissue and nodules that replace liver tissue that disrupt liver function.
• Heart fibrosis - areas of the heart that have become damaged due to myocardial infarction.
• Mediastinal fibrosis - calcified fibrosis of the lymph nodes, which can block respiratory channels and blood vessels.
• Retroperitoneal cavity fibrosis - fibrosis of the soft tissue in the retro-peritoneum
• Myelofibrosis - scarring of the bone marrow that prevents the normal production of blood cells.
• Keloid-fibrosis on the skin in response to injury
• Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis - an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue that primarily affects the skin but can also involve other organs such as the kidneys, heart and lungs.
• Tissue biopsy
Stem Cell therapy
• Joints - stiffness and pain
• Tendons – contracture, deformity
• Shoulder capsule - adhesive capsulitis and frozen shoulder
• Fibrosis of the soft tissue in the penis