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Chapter: Artificial Intelligence

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Important Questions and Answers: Algorithm of Problem Solving

Artificial Intelligence - Important Questions and Answers: Algorithm of Problem Solving

1.What is AI?

 

The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better.

 

 

 

2.What are the categories of AI?

 

1.                                                     Systems that act like humans.

2.                                                     Systems that think like a humans.

3.                                                     Systems that think rationally.

4.                                                     Systems that act rationally.

 

 

3.What is meant by turing test?

 

It was designs to give a satisfactory operational definition of intelligence. Turing defined the intelligent behavior as the ability to achieve human-level performance in all cognitive tasks, sufficient to fool an interrogator.

 

 

 

4.What are the capabilities that a computer should process?

 

The capabilities are:

 

1.                                                                             Natural language processing.

2.                                                                             Knowledge representation.

3.                                                                             Automated reasoning.

4.                                                                             Machine learning.

 

 

5. Define agent with example.

 

An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators.

 

Ex: Human Agents, Robotics agents & Software agents.

 

6. Define rational agent.

 

A rational agent is one that does the right thing. A system is rational if it does the “right thing”, given what it knows.

 

 

 

7. State the needs of a computer to pass the turing test.

 

i)                                                 Computer Vision: To perceive Objects.

 

ii)                                                  Robotics: To manipulate objects and move about.

 

8. What is called as an omniscience agent?

 It is one which knows  the actual outcome of its actions & can act accordingly

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9. Define agent program.

 

The agent is a concrete implementation, running on the agent architecture. They take the current percept as input from the sensors and return to the actuators.

 

 

 

10. Define agent function.

 

It is an abstract mathematical description. That maps any given percept sequence to an action.

 

 

 

11.            State the properties of task environment.

 

1.                                                 Fully observable Vs Partially observable.

 

2.                                                 Deterministic Vs Stochastic.

 

3.                                                 Episodic Vs Sequential

 

4.                                                 Static Vs Dynamic

 

5.                                                 Discrete Vs Continuous

 

6.                                                 Single agent Vs Multi agent

 

12.            What are the basic kinds of agent program?

 

i)                                                 Simple reflex agents.

 

ii)                                                  Mode-based reflex agents.

 

iii)                                                 Goal based agents and

 

iv)                                                Utility-based agents.

 

 

 

13. Differentiate episodic vs sequential.

 

In an episodic task environment, the agents experience is divided into atomic episodes. Each episode consists of the agent perceiving and then performing a single action.

 

The current decision does not affect whether the next part is defective.

 

In  sequential  environments,  the  current  decision  could  affect  all  future decisions.

 

Chess and taxi driving are sequential.

 

 

14. Define problem solving agent.

 

Problem solving agents decide what to do by finding sequences of actions that lead to desirable states.

 

15. What is backtracking search?

 

A variant of depth-first search called backtracking search uses still less memory. Only one successor is generated at a time rather than all successors. Each partially expanded node remembers which successor to generate next.

 

 

 

16. What do you mean by depth limited search?

 

 

The problem of unbounded trees can be alleviated by supplying depth-first with a predetermined depth limit l. That is, nodes at depth l are treated as if they have no successors. This approach is called depth-limited search.

 

 

 

17.   What are the problems arises when knowledge of the states or actions is incomplete?

 

1.                                                 Sensor less problems

 

2.                                                 Contingency problems

 

3.                                                 Exploration problems

 

 

 

18.            What are the steps to evaluate an algorithm’s performance?

 

1.                                                 Completeness

 

2.                                                 Optimality

 

3.                                                 Time Complexity

 

4.                                                 Space Complexity

 

 

 

19.            Give examples for real world problems.

 

i)                                                 The route finding

 

ii)                                                  Touring

 

iii)                                                 Traveling sales person

 

iv)                                                Robot navigation

 

 

 

20.            What are the four components in problem?

 

i)                                                 Initial state

 

ii)                                                  Actions

 

iii)                                                 Goal state

 

iv)                                                 Path cost

21. What is called as a uniformed search?

 

This term has no information about the number of steps or path cost current to goal state. They can distinguish a goal state from a non-goal state. Also known as blind search.

 

 

 

22. What is called informed search?

 

It is one that uses problem-specific knowledge beyond the definition of the problem itself and can find solutions more efficiently than an uninformed strategy.

 

 

 

23. Give the complexity of a breath-first search.

 

The time complexity is O(b d), where, d is the depth and b is number at each level.

 

 

 

24. What is iterative deepening search?

 

It is an abstract mathematical description. That maps any given percept sequence to an action.

 

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