Whereas propositional logic assumes the world contains facts,
first-order logic (like natural language) assumes the world contains

**Predicate Calculus**

**First-order logic**

Whereas propositional logic assumes the world
contains facts,

first-order logic (like natural language)
assumes the world contains

Objects: people, houses, numbers, colors, baseball games, wars, …

Relations: red, round, prime, brother of, bigger than, part of, comes between, …

**Syntax of FOL: Basic elements**

**• Constants TaoiseachJohn, 2, DIT,...**

**• Predicates Brother, >,...**

**• Functions Sqrt, LeftLegOf,...**

**• Variables x, y, a, b,...**

**• Connectives , **

**• Equality =**

**• Quantifiers , **

**Atomic sentences**

Atomic sentence = *predicate
*(*term _{1}*,...,

or *term _{1}*

Term = *function
*(*term _{1}*,...,

or *constant*
or *variable*

E.g., *Brother(TaoiseachJohn,RichardTheLionheart)
>* *(Length(LeftLegOf(Richard)),
Length(LeftLegOf(TaoiseachJohn)))*

**Complex sentences**

Complex sentences are made from atomic sentences using connectives

**Truth in first-order logic**

Sentences are true with respect to a model and an interpretation

Model contains objects (domain
elements) and relations among them

Interpretation specifies referents for

**constant
symbols → objects**

**predicate
symbols → relations**

**function
symbols → functional
relations**

An atomic sentence *predicate(term _{1},...,term_{n})* is true iff the objects referred to by

are in the relation
referred to by *predicate*

**Universal
quantification**

Roughly speaTaoiseach, equivalent to the
conjunction of instantiations of P

At(TaoiseachJohn,DIT) -- > Smart(TaoiseachJohn)

At(Richard,DIT) -- > Smart(Richard)

At(DIT,DIT)
-- > Smart(DIT)

A common mistake to avoid

means “Everyone is at DIT and everyone is smart”

**Existential
quantification**

Roughly speaTaoiseach, equivalent to the
disjunction of instantiations of P

At(TaoiseachJohn,DIT) -- > Smart(TaoiseachJohn)

At(Richard,DIT) --
> Smart(Richard)

At(DIT,DIT) --
> Smart(DIT)

**Another
common mistake to avoid**

**Properties
of quantifiers**

**Equality**

*term _{1}
= term_{2} *is true
under a given interpretation

E.g., definition of *Sibling* in terms of *Parent*:

**Using
FOL**

The kinship domain:

Brothers are siblings

One's mother is one's female parent

“Sibling” is symmetric

Knowledge engineering in FOL

·
Identify
the task

·
Assemble
the relevant knowledge

·
Decide on
a vocabulary of predicates, functions, and constants

·
Encode
general knowledge about the domain

·
Encode a
description of the specific problem instance

·
Pose
queries to the inference procedure and get answers

·
Debug the
knowledge base

**Summary**

**First-order
logic:**

objects and relations are semantic primitives

syntax: constants, functions, predicates,
equality, quantifiers

**Semantics
for Predicate Calculus**

An interpretation over D is an assignment of the
entities of D to each of the constant, variable, predicate and function symbols
of a predicate calculus expression such that:

1: Each constant is assigned an element of D

2: Each variable is assigned a non-empty subset
of D;(these are the allowable substitutions for that variable)

3: Each predicate of arity n is defined on n
arguments from D and defines a mapping from D^{n} into {T,F}

4: Each function of arity n is defined on n
arguments from D and defines a mapping from D^{n} into D

**The meaning
of an expression**

Given an interpretation, the meaning of an
expression is a truth value assignment over the interpretation.

**Truth
Value of Predicate Calculus expressions**

Assume an expression E and an interpretation I
for E over a non empty domain D. The truth value for E is determined by:

The value of a constant is the element of D
assigned to by I

The value of a variable is the set of elements
assigned to it by I

**More
truth values**

The value of a function expression is that
element of D obtained by evaluating the function for the argument values
assigned by the interpretation

The value of the truth symbol “true” is T

The value of the symbol “false” is F

The value of an atomic sentence is either T or F
as determined by the interpretation I

**Similarity
with Propositional logic truth values**

The value of the negation of a sentence is F if
the value of the sentence is T and F otherwise

The values for conjunction, disjunction
,implication and equivalence are analogous to their propositional logic
counterparts

**Universal
Quantifier**

The value for

Is T if S is T for all assignments to X under I,
and F otherwise

**Existential
Quantifier**

The value for

Is T if S is T for any assignment to X under I,
and F otherwise

**Some
Definitions**

A predicate calculus expressions S1 is *satisfied*.

*Definition
*If there exists an Interpretation I* *and a variable assignment under I which
returns a value T for S1 then S1 is said to be satisfied under I.

S is Satisfiable if there exists an
interpretation and variable assignment that satisfies it: Otherwise it is
unsatisfiable

A set of predicate calculus expressions S is *satisfied*.

*Definition
*For any interpretation I and* *variable assignment where a value T is returned for every element
in S the the set S is said to be satisfied,

A set of expressions is satisfiable if and only
if there exist an intrepretation and variable assignment that satisfy every
element

If a set of expressions is not satisfiable, it is
said to be inconsistent

If S has a value T for all possible
interpretations , it is said to be valid

A predicate
calculus expressions S1 is *satisfied*.

*Definition
*If there exists an Interpretation I and a
variable

assignment under I which returns a value T for
S1 then S1 is

said to be satisfied under I.

A set of predicate calculus expressions S is *satisfied*.

*Definition
*For any interpretation I and variable assignment

where a value T is returned for every element in S the the set

S is said to be satisfied,

An inference rule is *complete.*

*Definition
*If all predicate calculus expressions X that
logically

follow from a set of expressions, S can be
produced using the

inference rule , then the inference rule is said
to be complete.

A predicate calculus expression X *logically* *follows *from a set S of predicate calculus* *expressions .

For any interpretation I and variable assignment
where S is satisfied, if X is also satisfied under the same interpretation and
variable assignment then X logically follows from S.

Logically follows is sometimes called entailment

Soundness

An inference rule is sound.

If all predicate calculus expressions X produced
using the inference rule from a set of expressions, S logically follow from S
then the inference rule is said to be sound.

Completeness

An inference Rule is complete if given a set S
of predicate calculus expressions, it can infer every expression that logically
follows from S

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Artificial Intelligence(AI) : Representation of Knowledge : Predicate Calculus |

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