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Chapter: Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence(AI) Problem Solving

The objective of Artificial Intelligence is that how the system can perceive, understand, predict and manipulate a world far larger and more complicated. The field of Artificial Intelligence is to build intelligent entities.

PROBLEM SOLVING

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

The objective of Artificial Intelligence is that how the system can perceive, understand, predict and manipulate a world far larger and more complicated. The field of Artificial Intelligence is to build intelligent entities.

 

DEFINITION:

 

Artificial Intelligence is the study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better.

 

SOME DEFINITIONS OF AI

 

·                                  Building systems that think like humans

 

“The exciting new effort to make computers think … machines with minds, in the full and literal sense” -- Haugeland, 1985

 

“The automation of activities that we associate with human thinking, … such as decision-making, problem solving, learning, …” -- Bellman, 1978

 

·                                  Building systems that act like humans

 

“The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people” -- Kurzweil, 1990

 

“The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better” -- Rich and Knight, 1991

 

·                                  Building systems that think rationally

 

“The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models” -- Charniak and McDermott, 1985

 

“The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act” -- Winston, 1992

 

·                                  Building systems that act rationally

 

“A field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behavior in terms of computational processes” -- Schalkoff, 1990

“The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior” -- Luger and Stubblefield, 1993

AGENTS

Agent = perceive + act

·                  Thinking

·                  Reasoning

·                  Planning

 

Agent: entity in a program or environment capable of generating action.

 

An agent uses perceptionof the environment to make decisions about actions to take. The perception capability is usually called a sensor. The actions can depend on the most recent perception or on the entire history (percept sequence).

 

Definition:

 

An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon the environment through actuators.

 

Ex: Robotic agent Human agent



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