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SOUND SIGNAL TRANSMISSION
The outputs of all the microphones are terminated in sockets on the sound panel in the production control room. The audio signal is accorded enough amplification before feeding it to switchers and mixers for selecting and mixing outputs from different microphones.
The sound engineer in the control room does so in consultation with the programme director. Some prerecorded music and special sound effects are also available on tapes and are mixed with sound output from the studio at the discretion of programme director.
All this needs prior planning and a lot of rehearsing otherwise the desired effects cannot be produced. As in the case of picture transmission, audio monitors are provided at several stages along the audio channel to keep a check over the quality and volume of sound.
Contrary to popular belief both FM and AM are capable of giving the same fidelity if the desired bandwidth is allotted. Because of crowding in the medium and short wave bands in radio transmission, the highest modulating audio frequency used in 5 kHz and not the full audio range which extends up to about 15 kHz.
This limit of the highest modulating frequency results in channel bandwidth saving and only a bandwidth of 10 kHz is needed per channel. Thus, it becomes possible to accommodate a large number of radio broadcast stations in the limited broadcast band. Since most of the sound signal energy is limited to lower audio frequencies, the sound reproduction is quite satisfactory.
Frequency modulation, that is capable of providing almost noise free and high fidelity output needs a wider swing in frequency on either side of the carrier. This can be easily allowed in a TV channel, where, because of very high video frequencies a channel bandwidth of 7 MHz is allotted. In FM, where highest audio frequency allowed is 15 kHz, the sideband frequencies do not extend too far and can be easily accommodated around the sound carrier that lies 5.5 MHz away from the picture carrier.
The bandwidth assigned to the FM sound signal is about 200 kHz of which not more than 100 kHz is occupied by sidebands of significant amplitude. The latter figure is only 1.4 per cent of the total channel bandwidth of 7 MHz. Thus, without encroaching much, in a relative sense, on the available band space for television transmission all the advantages of FM can be availed.
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