TASK DOMAIN OF AI
Areas of Artificial Intelligence
· Machine Vision: It is easy to interface a TV camera to a computer and get an image into memory; the problem is understandingwhat the image represents. Vision takes lots of computation; in humans, roughly 10% of all calories consumed are burned in vision computation.
· Speech Understanding: Speech understanding is available now. Some systems must be trained for the individual user and require pauses between words. Understanding continuous speech with a larger vocabulary is harder.
· Touch(tactile or haptic) Sensation: Important for robot assembly tasks.
- Robotics Although industrial robots have been expensive, robot hardware can be cheap: Radio Shack has sold a working robot arm and hand for $15. The limiting factor in application of robotics is not the cost of the robot hardware itself. What is needed is perception and intelligence to tell the robot what to do; ``blind'' robots are limited to very well-structured tasks (like spray painting car bodies).
- Planning Planning attempts to order actions to achieve goals. Planning applications include logistics, manufacturing scheduling, planning manufacturing steps to construct a desired product. There are huge amounts of money to be saved through better planning.
- Expert Systems Expert Systems attempt to capture the knowledge of a human expert and make it available through a computer program. There have been many successful and economically valuable applications of expert systems. Expert systems provide the following benefits
• Reducing skill level needed to operate complex de vices.
• Diagnostic advice for device repair.
• Interpretation of complex data.
• ``Cloning'' of scarce expertise.
• Capturing knowledge of expert who is about to ret ire.
• Combining knowledge of multiple experts.
- Theorem Proving Proving mathematical theorems might seem to be mainly of academic interest. However, many practical problems can be cast in terms of theorems. A general theorem prover can therefore be widely applicable.
• Automatic construction of compiler code generators from a description of a CPU's instruction set.
• J Moore and colleagues proved correctness of the floating-point division algorithm on AMD CPU chip.
- Symbolic Mathematics Symbolic mathematics refers to manipulation of formulas, rather than arithmetic on numeric values.
• Differential and Integral Calculus
Symbolic manipulation is often used in conjunction with ordinary scientific computation as a generator of programs used to actually do the calculations. Symbolic manipulation programs are an important component of scientific and engineering workstations.
- Game Playing Games are good vehicles for research because they are well formalized, small, and self-contained. They are therefore easily programmed. Games can be good models of competitive situations, so principles discovered in game-playing programs may be applicable to practical problems.
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