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Aluminium chloride - Preparation, Properties, Uses | Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail |

Chapter: 12th Chemistry : p-Block Elements-I

Aluminium chloride

When aluminium metal or aluminium hydroxide is treated with hydrochloric acid, aluminium trichloride is formed.

Aluminium chloride:


Preparation:

When aluminium metal or aluminium hydroxide is treated with hydrochloric acid, aluminium trichloride is formed. The reaction mixture is evaporated to obtain hydrated aluminium chloride.

2Al + 6HCl → 2AlCl3 + 3H2

Al(OH)3 + 3HCl → AlCl3 + 3H2O

McAfee Process:

Aluminium chloride is obtained by heating a mixture of alumina and coke in a current of chlorine.

Al2O3 +3C + 3Cl2  → 2AlCl3 + 3CO2

On industrial scale it is prepared by chlorinating aluminium around 1000 K



Properties:

Anhydrous aluminium chloride is a colourless, hygroscopic substance.

An aqueous solution of aluminium chloride is acidic in nature. It also produces hydrogen chloride fumes in moist air.

AlCl3 + 3H2O → Al(OH)3 + 3HCl

With ammonium hydroxide it forms aluminium hydroxide.

AlCl3 + 3NH4OH → Al(OH)3 + 3NH4Cl

With excess of sodium hydroxide it produces metal aluminate

AlCl3 + 4NaOH → NaAlO2 + 2H2O + 3NaCl

It behaves like a Lewis acid and forms addition compounds with ammonia, phosphine and carbonylchloride etc... Eg. AlCl3.6NH3.


Uses of aluminium chloride:

·           Anhydrous aluminium chloride is used as a catalyst in Friedels Crafts reactions

·           It is used for the manufacture of petrol by cracking the mineral oils.

·           It is used as a catalyst in the manufacture on dyes, drugs and perfumes.

 

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Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail


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