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Chapter: 12th Nursing : Chapter 11 : Communicable Diseases

Prevention of Communicable Diseases

It is a new concept, receiving special attention in the prevention of chronic diseases.

Prevention Of Communicable Diseases

PRIMORDIAL – PREVENTION : It is a new concept, receiving special attention in the prevention of chronic diseases. This is primary prevention in its purest sense, that is prevention of the emergence or development of risk factors in countries or population. An groups in which they have not yet appeared eg many adult health problems.

Primary Prevention

·  Increasing the resistance of the host

·  Inactivating the agent

·  Interrupt the chain of infection

·  Restricting spread of infection

·  Health education

·  Specific protection (eg) Immunization, Chemoprophylaxis.

Secondary Prevention

·  Activities targeted at detecting disease at earliest possible. Examples case finding, health screening, health education

Tertiary Prevention

·  Limits the progression of disability

·  Treatment of symptoms and rehabilitation vary with each specific disease


Surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data in order to plan, implement and evaluate public health intervention.

Outbreak Control

An outbreak is occurrence of a number of cases of a disease that is unusually large or unexpected for a given place and time. Early detection and control of the disease is advisable.

Management of a communicable disease outbreak

·  Preparation

·  Detection

·  Response

·  Evaluation

Preparation for the outbreak

·  Health coordination meetings

·  Strong surveillance system

·  Outbreak response plan for each disease

·  Stocks of IV fluids, antibiotics and vaccines

·  Plans for isolation wards

·  Laboratory support

Detection of outbreak

·  Surveillance system with early warning system for epidemic prone diseases.

·  Inform ministry of health and WHO in case of outbreaks of specific diseases.

·  Take appropriate specimens (stool, CSF or serum) for laboratory confirmation.

·  Include cases in the weekly reports

·  Assess appropriateness and effectiveness of containment measures.

·  Assess timelines of outbreak detection and response.

·  Change public health policy if indicated.

·  Write and disseminate outbreak report

·  Global Disease Eradication Efforts

Methods to accomplish the goal of eradication of diseases include:

·  immunization and vaccination

·  drug therapy

·  community training

·  health education

·  national disease surveillance efforts

Nurses’ Role

Community health nurses play an important role with regard to all population at risk for communicable disease

Nurses concerned with communicable disease control must

·  Recognize vulnerable area.

·  Locate the reservoirs and source of infectious disease agents

·  Identify the environmental factors which promote the spread of communicable disease.

·  Identify characteristic of vulnerability of community member and groups-particularly those subject to intervention

·  Community health nurses must work collaboratively with other public health professional. Organize immunization and educational programs, to improve community infection control policies.


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12th Nursing : Chapter 11 : Communicable Diseases : Prevention of Communicable Diseases |

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12th Nursing : Chapter 11 : Communicable Diseases

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