Diseases Transmitted Through Air
Measles is an acute highly infectious disease of childhood caused by a specific virus of the group Myxo viruses.
RNA Para Myxo viruses
Mode of transmission - Droplet infection
Incubation period - 10 days from exposure to onset of fever and 14 days to appearance of rash. Average 7 days.
There are three stages
· Nasal discharge
· Redness of Eyes
· Koplik”S Spots on A Red Base
· Maculo-papular rash
· Rashes become confluent,blotchy
· Weight loss
· Growth retardation
· Reactivation of Pulmonary tuberculosis
· Nutritional and metabolic effects
· Measles – associated diarrhea,
· Otitis media.
· Febrile convulsions,
· Isolation for 7 days after the onset of rash.
· Immunization of contacts within 2 days of exposure. (if vaccine is contra indicated immunoglobulin should be given within 3 – 4 days of exposure)
· Prompt immunization at the beginning of an endemic is essential to limit the spread.
There is no specific treatment for measles, but the condition usually improves within 7 to 10 days. Following measures are important to control infection.
· Controlling fever and relieving pain
· Plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration
· Treating cold like symptoms
· Care of the sore eyes - cleaning the crusts with wet cotton swabs.
Measles vaccine: Measles is best prevented by active immunization. The vaccine is presented as a freeze dried product. It is most important to store the vaccine at 2 – 8 degree celsius.
The most effective month of immunization by World Health Organization is at 9 months of age.