Meningococcal meningitis or cerebrospinal fever is an acute communicable disease caused by Neisseria. meningitis. It usually begins with intense headache,vomiting and stiff neck and progresses to coma within a few hours.
Mode of transmission - Droplet infection Incubation period -2-10 days
· Neck stiffness and various neurological sign.
· Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC; blood clotting disorder)
· Persistent fever
· brain damage
· Behavioral and personality changes
· Vision loss (partial or total)
· Cerebral palsy
· Hearing loss (partial or total)
· Learning disabilities or mental retardation
· Paralysis (partial or total) Speech loss (partial or total)
· Severe bacterial meningitis also may cause the head and heels to bend backward and the body to bow forward (called opisthotonos),
· Coma, and death
a. Control of cases, carriers and contacts.
b. Cases: Treatment with antibiotics can save the lives of 95% of patients provided that, it is started during the first 2 days of illness. Penicillin is the drug of choice.
c. Contact: Close contact of persons with confirmed meningococcal disease patients are at an increased risk of developing meningococcal illness.
d. Mass chemoprophylaxis: Mass medication of the total population some of which arenot infected. Mass chemoprophylaxis be restricted and closely and medically supervised
e. Communities : Mass treatment causes an immediate drop in the maintenance rate of meningitis and in the proportion carriers.
f. Environmental measures : Improved housing and prevention of over-crowding are longterm measures.