Poliomyelitis is an acute viral infection caused by polio viruses. It is a crippling disease.
Three types of polioviruses (Type I, II, III)
Mode of transmission - Faeco – oral route: Through contaminated water, food, fingers etc.
Droplet infection : Coughing and sneezing an important route of transmission during the acute stage.
Incubation period - 7 to 21 days. It may vary from 3 to 35 days.
· Respiratory – Coryza, soar throat or cough.
· Gastro Intestinal Tract – Vomiting, diarrhea or constipation.
· Continuous – Fever, headache, drowsiness, restlessness, irritability and sweating.
· Pain – Spontaneous by the movement of back, neck, limbs.
· Nuchal and spinal rigidity
· Excessive perspiration
· Pulmonary edema
i. Sanitation : Measures to reduce transmission such as improved water supply, proper excreta disposal and improved domestic and food hygiene. Simple hygienic measures like hand washing with soap before preparing food, before eating,before feeding a child, after defecation, after cleaning a child who has defecated and after disposing off a child’s stool should be promoted.
ii. Health education : important part of health workers job is, to prevent diarrhea by educating and helping community members to adopt and maintain preventive measures such as breast-feeding, weaning, clean drinking water, use of plenty of water, use of sanitary latrine, proper disposal of stools of young children and patients with infection, etc.
iii. Immunization : Immunization against measles is a potential intervention for diarrhea
Control Measures Two types of vaccines are used
a. Inactivated (Salk) vaccine (Injection)
b. oral (Sabin) polio vaccine (OPV).
iv. Fly control : Flies breeding in association with human or animal faeces should be controlled.
· Mild analgesics and sedatives to relieve pain and induce sleep.
· For constipation – Mild laxatives
· Antibiotics to prevent respiratory complication.
· If respiratory failure occurs, treat with artificial respirators.