Acute Diarrheal Diseases
According to WHO Acute diarrhea is defined as an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid faecal matter from the bowel, lasting less than the 14 days by WHO.
Bacteria: Escherichia coli, Shigella, salmonella etc.,
Virus: Rota virus, adenovirus etc.
Parasites: Endamoeba hystelytica, Giardia lamblin etc.
Mode Of Transmission - Direct transmission - Faeco – oral route
Incubation Period - Few Hour to one day.
· Sunken eyes
· Irritable and restlessness
· Rapid respiration
· Sudden collapse if not treated properly
· Stools loose and fluid in consistency, greenish or yellow green in colour, may contain mucus or blood.
· Poor skin turgor, dry skin and dry mouth
· Sunken fontanels in children Diagnosis – Stool test
· Persistent diarrhea
· Vitamins and mineral deficiencies
· Hypoglycemia resulting in convulsions and brain damage
· Electrolyte loss
· Hypovolemic shock
· Acute renal failure
· Promote exclusive breastfeeding
· Using sanitary latrines
· Keep food and water clean and closed.
· Wash hands before eating and after defaecation.
Oral Rehydration Therapy: Give some available liquids like rice water, oral rehydration solution (ORS) packet to be dissolved in one litre of drinking water and stir with clean spoon, till it dissolves. Give ¼ to ½ cup after every loose motion to a child less than 2 years of age and 100-200 ml if the child is above 2 years. The solution should be consumed within 24 hours and should not be heated or boiled.
· Coconut water
· Rice water
· Dhal water
· Smashed banana
· Watery tea
· Breakfast feeding to be continued.
· Antibiotics for Bacterial infection
· Symptomatic treatment for fever, vomiting etc.
· Anti – Motility agents.
· Intravenous infusion to severely dehydrated clients.