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Chapter: Artificial Intelligence

Important Questions and Answers: Artificial Intelligence Learning

Artificial Intelligence - Important Questions and Answers: Artificial Intelligence Learning


1.    What is communication?


Communication is the intentional exchange of information brought about by the production and perception of signs drawn from a shared system of conventional signs. Most animals use signs to represent important messages.




2.    Define language.

Language enables us to communicate most of what we know about the world.


3.  Why would an agent bother to perform a speech act when it could be doing a

“regular” action?


A group of agents exploring together gains an advantage by being able to do the following.


·                                                              Query

·                                                              Inform

·                                                              Request


·                                                              Acknowledge

·                                                              Promise


4.     Differentiate formal language Vs natural language. Formal language:


A formal language is defined as a set of strings. Each string is a concatenation of terminal symbols called words.


For example, a language in the first order logic, the terminal symbols include ^ and


P, and a typical string is “P ^ Q”. The String is not a member of the language.


Formal languages always have grammar.


Natural language:


Formal language is in contrast to natural Languages, such as Chinese, English, that have no strict definition but are used by a community of speakers.


Natural languages have no grammar.




5.  Define Grammar.


A grammar is a finite set of rules that specifies a language. Formal languages always have grammar. Natural languages have no grammar.


6.     What are the component steps of communication?

·                                                              Intention

·                                                              Generation

·                                                              Synthesis

·                                                              Perception


·                                                              Analysis

·                                                              Disambiguation

·                                                              Incorporation



7. Define Lexicon.


The list of allowable words called lexicon. The words are grouped into the categories or parts of speech familiar to dictionary users. Nouns, pronouns and names to denote things, verbs to denote events, adjective to modify nouns and adverbs to modify verbs.




8.  What are called open classes and closed classes?

Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and Adverbs are called open classes.


Pronoun, Article, Preposition and Conjunction are called closed classes.




9.  Define grammar overgenerates, undergenerates.


The grammar overgenerates is that generates sentences that are not grammatical.


Ex: I smell pit fold wumpus nothing east.


The grammar undergenerates is that generates sentence with grammar.


Ex: “I think the wumpus is smelly”




10. Define parsing (or) Syntactic parsing.

Parsing is the process of finding a parse tree for a given input string.


That is, a call to the parsing function PARSE, such as


PARSE(“the wumpus is dead”, ε0, S)


Should return a parse tree with root S whose leaves are the “the wumpus is dead” and whose internal nodes are nonterminal symbols from the grammar ε0.




11. Define Semantic Interpretation.


The extraction of the meaning of utterance is called Semantics. Semantic interpretation is the process of associating a First Order Logic expression with a phrase.




12. What are the properties of Intermediate form?


The Intermediate form is to mediate between syntax and semantics. It has two key properties.


·                                                              First, it is structurally similar to the syntax of the sentence and thus can that it can be easily constructed through compositional means.


·                                                              Second, it contains enough information that it can be translated into a regular first order logical sentence.



13.            Define metaphor.


A Metaphor is a figure of speech in which a phrase with one literal meaning is used to suggest a different meaning by way of an analogy.




14.            What are the models of knowledge?

·                                                              World model

·                                                              Mental model

·                                                              Language model

·                                                              Acoustic model



15.            Define discourse.

A discourse is any string of language usually that is more than one sentence






16. Define Reference resolution.


Reference resolution is the interpretation of a pronoun or a definite noun phrase that refers to an object in the world.




17.            Mention the list of coherence relations.

·                                                              Enable or cause

·                                                              Explanation

·                                                              Ground-figure

·                                                              Evaluation


·                                                              Exemplification

·                                                              Generalization

·                                                              Violated Expectation



16.      What is grammar induction?

Grammar induction is the task of learning a grammar from data.



17. What is information retrieval?


Information retrieval is the task of finding documents that are relevant to a user’s need for information. The best known example of information retrieval systems are

search engines on the World Wide Web.


An information retrieval can be characterized by:


1.                                                                       A document collection

2.                                                                       A query posed in a query language

3.                                                                       A result set

4.                                                                       A representation of the result set.



18.      What is information extraction?


Information extraction is the process of creating database entries by skimming a text and looking for occurrences of a particular class of object or event and for relationships among those objects and events.




19. What is context-sensitive grammar?


Context-sensitive grammars are restricted only in that the right-hand side must contain at least as many symbols as the left-hand side. The name “context sensitive”


comes from the fact that a rule such as A S B à A * b says that an S can be rewritten as an X in the context of a preceding A and following.




20. Define Language Modeling.

Language modeling approach is one which estimates a language model for


each document and then, for each query, computes the probability of the query, given the document’s language model.




21. What is a regular expression?


A regular expression defines a regular grammar in a single text string. These are used in UNIX commands such as grep, in programming languages such as Perl, and in word processors such Microsoft word.




22. What is cascaded finite-state transducer?



Cascaded finite-state transducer consist of a series of finite-state automata, where automation receives text as input, transducers the text into a different format, and passes it along to the next automation.

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