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Chapter: Cryptography and Network Security

Authentication Applications

1. KERBEROS 2. A More Secure Authentication Dialogue

Authentication Applications




Kerberos provides a centralized authentication server whose function is to authenticate users to servers and servers to users. Kerberos relies exclusively on conventional encryption, making no use of public-key encryption.


The following are the requirements for Kerberos:


Secure: A network eavesdropper should not be able to obtain the necessary information to impersonate a user. More generally, Kerberos should be strong enough that a potential opponent does not find it to be the weak link.  


Reliable: For all services that rely on Kerberos for access control, lack of availability of the Kerberos service means lack of availability of the supported services. Hence, Kerberos should be highly reliable and should employ a distributed server architecture, with one system able to back up another.  


Transparent: Ideally, the user should not be aware that authentication is taking place, beyond the requirement to enter a password.  


Scalable: The system should be capable of supporting large numbers of clients and servers. This suggests a modular, distributed architecture.  


To support these requirements, the overall scheme of Kerberos is that of a trusted third-party authentication service that uses a protocol based on that proposed by Needham and Schroeder [NEED78] It is trusted in the sense that clients and servers trust Kerberos to mediate their mutual authentication. Assuming the Kerberos protocol is well designed, then the authentication service is secure if the Kerberos server itself is secure.


A Simple Authentication Dialogue


In an unprotected network environment, any client can apply to any server for service.


The obvious security risk is that of impersonation. To counter this threat, servers must be able to confirm the identities of clients who request service. But in an open environment, this places a substantial burden on each server.

An alternative is to use an authentication server (AS) that knows the passwords of all users and stores these in a centralized database. In addition, the AS shares a unique secret key with each server.


The simple authentication dialogue is as follows:


C >> AS: IDc||Pc||IDv


AS >> C: Ticket


C      >>  V:   IDc||Ticket          Ticket=




C: Client,


AS: Authentication Server,  V: Server,


IDv : ID of the server,          IDc : ID of the client,


Pc:Password of the client,    ADc: Address of client,


Kv: secret key shared by AS and V, ||: concatenation.


2. A More Secure Authentication Dialogue


There are two major problems associated with the previous approach:


Plaintext transmission of the password.  


Each time a user has to enter the password.  


To solve these problems, we introduce a scheme for avoiding plaintext passwords, and anew server, known as ticket granting server (TGS). The hypothetical scenario is as follows: Once


per user logon session:


C >> AS: IDc||IDtgs


AS >> C: Ekc (Tickettgs)


Once per type of service:


C >> TGS: IDc||IDv||Tickettgs


TGS >> C: ticketv


Once per service session:


5. C >> V: IDc||ticketv


Tickettgs= Ektgs(IDc||ADc||IDtgs||TS1||Lifetime1) Ticketv=






C: Client, AS: Authentication Server, V: Server, IDc : ID of the client, Pc:Password of the client, ADc: Address of client, IDv : ID of the server, Kv: secret key shared by AS and V, ||: concatenation, IDtgs: ID of the TGS server, TS1, TS2: time stamps, lifetime: lifetime of the ticket.


The new service, TGS, issues tickets to users who have been authenticated to AS. Thus, the user first requests a ticket-granting ticket (Tickettgs) from the AS. The client module in the user


workstation saves this ticket. Each time the user requires access to a new service, the client applies to the TGS, using the ticket to authenticate itself. The TGS then grants a ticket for the particular service. The client saves each service-granting ticket and uses it to authenticate its user to a server each time a particular service is requested. Let us look at the details of this scheme:


The client requests a ticket-granting ticket on behalf of the user by sending its user's ID and password to the AS, together with the TGS ID, indicating a request to use the TGS service.


The AS responds with a ticket that is encrypted with a key that is derived from the user's password.


When this response arrives at the client, the client prompts the user for his or her password, generates the key, and attempts to decrypt the incoming message.


If the correct password is supplied, the ticket is successfully recovered.


Because only the correct user should know the password, only the correct user can recover the ticket. Thus, we have used the password to obtain credentials from Kerberos without having to transmit the password in plaintext.


Now that the client has a ticket-granting ticket, access to any server can be obtained with steps 3 and 4:


The client requests a service-granting ticket on behalf of the user. For this purpose, the client transmits a message to the TGS containing the user's ID, the ID of the desired service, and the ticket-granting ticket.


The TGS decrypts the incoming ticket and verifies the success of the decryption by the presence of its ID. It checks to make sure that the lifetime has not expired. Then it compares the user ID and network address with the incoming information to authenticate the user. If the user is permitted access to the server V, the TGS issues a ticket to grant access to the requested service.


The service-granting ticket has the same structure as the ticket-granting ticket. Indeed, because the TGS is a server, we would expect that the same elements are needed to authenticate a client to the TGS and to authenticate a client to an application server. Again, the ticket contains a timestamp and lifetime. If the user wants access to the same service at a later time, the client can simply use the previously acquired service-granting ticket and need not bother the user for a password. Note that the ticket is encrypted with a secret key (Kv) known only to the TGS and the server, preventing alteration.


Finally, with a particular service-granting ticket, the client can gain access to the corresponding service with step 5:


The client requests access to a service on behalf of the user. For this purpose, the client transmits a message to the server containing the user's ID and the service-granting ticket. The server authenticates by using the contents of the ticket.


This new scenario satisfies the two requirements of only one password query per user session and protection of the user password.

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