1. SHA-512 Overview
2. SHA-512 Compression Function
3. SHA-512 Round Function
4. SHA-512 –Individual Round Function

**HASH FUNCTIONS**

In recent
years, there has been considerable effort, and some successes, in developing
cryptanalytic attacks on hash functions. To understand these, we need to look
at the overall structure of a typical secure hash function, and is the
structure of most hash functions in use today, including SHA and Whirlpool.

The hash
function takes an input message and partitions it into L fixed-sized blocks of
b bits each. If necessary, the final block is padded to b bits. The final block
also includes the value of the total length of the input to the hash function.
The inclusion of the length makes the job of the opponent more difficult.
Either the opponent must find two messages of equal length that hash to the
same value or two messages of differing lengths that, together with their
length values, hash to the samevalue.

The hash
algorithm involves repeated use of a **compression
function**, f, that takes two inputs (an n-bit input from the previous step,
called the chaining variable, and a b-bit block) and produces an n-bit output.
At the start of hashing, the chaining variable has an initial value that is
specified as part of the algorithm. The final value of the chaining variable is
the hash value. Often, b > n; hence the term compression. The hash function
can be summarized as follows:

where the
input to the hash function is a message M consisting of the blocks Y_{o},
Y_{1},..., Y_{L-1.} The structure can be used to produce a
secure hash function to operate on a message of any length.

**Message Authentication Codes**

There is
much more variety in the structure of MACs than in hash functions, so it is
difficult to generalize about the cryptanalysis of MACs. Further, far less work
has been done on developing such attacks.

**SECURE HASH ALGORITHM**

o
SHA originally designed by NIST & NSA in 1993
was revised in 1995 as SHA-1

o
US standard for use with DSA signature scheme

^{§ }standard
is FIPS 180-1 1995, also Internet RFC3174^{}

^{ }

^{§ }nb. the
algorithm is SHA, the standard is SHS^{}

^{ }

o
based on design of MD4 with key differences

o
produces 160-bit hash values

o
recent 2005 results on security of SHA-1 have
raised concerns on its use in future applications

**1. SHA-512 Overview**

**2. SHA-512 Compression Function**

heart of
the algorithm

processing
message in 1024-bit blocks

consists
of 80 rounds

updating a 512-bit buffer^{}

^{ }

using a 64-bit value Wt derived from the current message block^{}

^{ }

and a
round constant based on cube root of first 80 prime numbers

**3. SHA-512 Round Function**

**4. SHA-512 –Individual Round
Function**

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Cryptography and Network Security : Secure Hash Algorithm |

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