Types of discipline used in early and late childhood
This is the traditional form of discipline and is based on the old saying that 'to spare the rod means spoiling the child.' In authoritarian discipline, parents and other caretakers establish rules and inform children that they are expected to abide by them. No attempt is made to explain to the children why they must conform nor are children given opportunities to express their opinions about their fairness or the reasonableness of the rules. If children fail to conform to the rules, they are subjected to act as a deterrent in future rule breaking. Their reason for breaking the rule is not taken into consideration. It is assured that they knew the rule and willfully violated it. Nor is it considered necessary to reward them for complying with a rule. This is regarded as their duty and any reward given, it is believed, might encourage children to expect to be bribed to do what society regards as their duty.
Permissive discipline developed as a revolt against the authoritarian discipline, many adults had been subjected to during their own childhoods. The philosophy behind this type of disciplinary technique is that children would learn from the consequences of their acts how to behave in a socially approved way. Consequently, they were not taught rules, they were not punished for willful breaking of rules, nor were they rewarded for behaving in a socially approved way. There is a tendency on the part of many adults today to abandon this form of discipline on the grounds that it fails to fulfill all three of the essential elements of discipline.
Today there is a growing tendency to favor discipline based on democratic principles. These principles emphasize the rights of the child to know why rules are made and to have an opportunity to express their opinions, if they believe a rule is unfair. Blind obedience is not expected even when children are very young. Attempts are made to have children understand the meaning of the rules and the reasons the social group expects them to abide by them. Instead of corporal punishment, in democratic discipline an attempt is made to make the punishment 'fit the crime' in the sense that the punishment is related to the misdeed. Appreciation for attempts to conform to social expectations as spelled out in rules is shown by rewards, mainly in the form of praise and social recognition.
Physical Hazards - Illness, Obesity, accidents and disabilities due to this are common hazards as in earlier age. Other than that sex - inappropriate body build are likely to be ridiculed by their peers and pitied by adults, (girls with masculine body builds and boys with girlish physique or voice) Same way awkwardness and clumsiness prevent them from doing what their playmates do.
Psychological Hazards - Most of psychological hazards are in relation to speech, emotional, social, play, sex-role typing and hazards in personality development.