Graphic aids are charts, diagrams, graphs, maps, flashcards, posters, pictures, photographs, leaflets, folders, pamphlets, cartoons and comics. They are two-dimensional materials having no depth which communicate facts, ideas and relationships clearly through words, lines, drawings, symbols and pictures. Graphic aids can serve many educational objectives for group teaching of 20 to 30 students. They help to:
1. Visualise abstract concepts which are difficult to understand - concepts of size, rate of growth, inner structure of an object or machine etc.
2. Reduce the amount of verbal talking and help in giving clear explanations; visuals in charts, graphs, diagrams and posters, cut down words.
3. Present the information in a specific and systematic manner. Since majority of them are formal aids, they have to be very systematic and organised.
They are also popular because they are
1. Comparatively less expensive.
2. Easy to make as no technical skills are required. Regular teachers, with some knowledge of drawing and who desire to be creative can prepare them.
3. Easy to use. Very special arrangements and machines are not required.
4. Easily usable and reusable as they are flat, two-dimensional materials.
Graphic Aids - I
This section includes those graphic aids which have similar principles of preparation, presentation and storage, and can be employed to do serious classroom teaching in home science.
Webster (1967) defines a map as a 'representation of the surface of the earth or some part of it, showing the relative size and position according to a scale or projection or position represented'. Even when, study of Home Science may not be able to involve use of maps as extensively as geography, a student must know the various physical facts about the earth, as well as it's social problems, situations and events. These can be understood best, if seen in their natural environmental setting. From this point of view, physical maps assume importance for students of home science also. A physical map may be of simple geographical outlines of land and water surfaces or may contain various details such as altitudes, temperatures, vegetation and soil. Maps can be industrial (when related to economy) or political also.
Use maps to -
1. stimulate students to learn
2. furnish means for self expression, projects for groups of students; example: projects of preparing maps on - boundaries of India, Home Science Colleges in India, Home Science Schools in Gujarat, Women's Organisations in Baroda and Adult Education centres in a district.
3. provide visual basis for comparison and contrast; example: milk dairies in the state or a district. 1RDP (Integrated Rural Development Project) - projects in villages of a district.
4. serve as a method of study; example - drawing a map of any community that has to be studied by the students themselves. Maps can be presented in different forms.
The globe is approximately the shape of the earth. The extremes represent the poles. It can be rotated along its vertical planes. It helps us to sec the various parts of the earth in relation to each other.
This is a flat two-dimensional map, making use of pictures, photographs, dots, triangles or any other realistic symbols to develop strong associations between regions and relevant information. A key is a must and the symbols must be very clear.
The outline map may be printed permanently on board or the outline can be traced with the help of a cardboard or wooden stencil. Copies of small size maps can be reproduced on a duplicating machine for individual student's use.