Graphic aids are charts, diagrams, graphs, maps, flashcards, posters, pictures, photographs, leaflets, folders, pamphlets, cartoons and comics. They are two-dimensional materials having no depth which communicate facts, ideas and relationships clearly through words, lines, drawings, symbols and pictures. Graphic aids can serve many educational objectives for group teaching of 20 to 30 students. They help to:
1. Visualise abstract concepts which are difficult to understand - concepts of size, rate of growth, inner structure of an object or machine etc.
2. Reduce the amount of verbal talking and help in giving clear explanations; visuals in charts, graphs, diagrams and posters, cut down words.
3. Present the information in a specific and systematic manner. Since majority of them are formal aids, they have to be very systematic and organised.
They are also popular because they are
1. Comparatively less expensive.
2. Easy to make as no technical skills are required. Regular teachers, with some knowledge of drawing and who desire to be creative can prepare them.
3. Easy to use. Very special arrangements and machines are not required.
4. Easily usable and reusable as they are flat, two-dimensional materials.
Graphic Aids - I
This section includes those graphic aids which have similar principles of preparation, presentation and storage, and can be employed to do serious classroom teaching in home science.
Graphic Aids - II
This section includes those graphic aids which primarily may not be used for serious classroom teaching, and have individual, specific principles of preparation and presentation. Nevertheless, their knowledge may aid a home science teacher in doing her job efficiently.
Flash cards are brief, visual messages presented on thick cards to emphasize important ideas, through the form of either a story or steps or points. But they are not useful for teaching a lot of details of a serious nature. After selecting the theme or message, build up a story of the events for presentation and transfer these ideas into cards to be flashed in sequence. They are used to:
1. convey a message easily, quickly and correctly; example - detect leprosy early.
2. motivate learners; example - a story on how cholera spreads.
3. build and develop an idea; example - include green leafy vegetables in the diet
4. summarise and emphasize the main points in a talk; example - agencies / organisations functioning for the welfare of mother and child.
5. produce lasting effect on illiterate persons and children as the content is presented in a simple visual manner.
While preparing flash cards, remember to:
1. have a total of 10 to 12 cards only.
2. make them on thick paper as they have to be held straight without any fastenings or pins.
3. have them in an appropriate size; use the rule that an object one inch high can be properly seen from 32 feet away.
4. have ½ to 1 inch margin on all four sides.
5. have bold and simple illustrations to help convey the idea properly, easily and quickly.
have few minimum details; example-plain instead of printed sari, line drawing and silhouettes in different colours.
1. have a light background and black or very dark coloured illustrations to make them stand out and be easily visible.
2. have few colours to provide clarity and emphasis.
3. write the number and the brief message for each card at the back of it
4. store them in strong labelled envelopes.
Flash cards are presented in a slightly different manner than the rest of the graphic aids. Use them in the following manner
1. rehearse the presentation of the flash cards several times before demonstrating them to the audience.
2. check that the flash cards are arranged according to their numbers before the talk begins.
3. make the audience sit either at the floor level (in extension work) or on chairs in a semi-circular arrangement so that all can see well.
4. if necessary, give a brief introduction before displaying the flash cards.
5. stand and hold flash cards at chest level.
6. explain the first card and then slip it behind the stack, or put it face down on the table; explain the next card and repeat the procedure till the whole series of cards are over.
7. hold the flash cards so that their surfaces are not obscured but are wholly visible to the learners; point out anything special from above or below the card.
They are similar to flash cards except that the cards are spiral bound to enable the instructor use them conveniently by placing it on the table and flipping the cards to narrate the story.