aids are charts, diagrams, graphs, maps, flashcards, posters, pictures,
photographs, leaflets, folders, pamphlets, cartoons and comics. They are
two-dimensional materials having no depth which communicate facts, ideas and
relationships clearly through words, lines, drawings, symbols and pictures.
Graphic aids can serve many educational objectives for group teaching of 20 to
30 students. They help to:
Visualise abstract concepts which are difficult
to understand - concepts of size, rate of growth, inner structure of an object
or machine etc.
Reduce the amount of verbal talking and help in
giving clear explanations; visuals in charts, graphs, diagrams and posters, cut
Present the information in a specific and
systematic manner. Since majority of them are formal aids, they have to be very
systematic and organised.
They are also popular
because they are
Comparatively less expensive.
Easy to make as no technical skills are
required. Regular teachers, with some knowledge of drawing and who desire to be
creative can prepare them.
Easy to use. Very special arrangements and
machines are not required.
Easily usable and reusable as they are flat,
Graphic Aids - I
This section includes those graphic aids which have similar principles
of preparation, presentation and storage, and can be employed to do serious
classroom teaching in home science.
Graphic Aids - II
section includes those graphic aids which primarily may not be used for serious
classroom teaching, and have individual, specific principles of preparation and
presentation. Nevertheless, their knowledge may aid a home science teacher in
doing her job efficiently.
Flash cards are brief, visual messages presented
on thick cards to emphasize important ideas, through the form of either a story
or steps or points. But they are not useful for teaching a lot of details of a
serious nature. After selecting the theme or message, build up a story of the
events for presentation and transfer these ideas into cards to be flashed in
sequence. They are used to:
convey a message easily, quickly and correctly;
example - detect leprosy early.
motivate learners; example - a story on how
build and develop an idea; example - include
green leafy vegetables in the diet
summarise and emphasize the main points in a
talk; example - agencies / organisations functioning for the welfare of mother
produce lasting effect on illiterate persons and
children as the content is presented in a simple visual manner.
While preparing flash cards, remember to:
have a total of 10 to 12 cards only.
make them on thick paper as they have to be held
straight without any fastenings or pins.
have them in an appropriate size; use the rule
that an object one inch high can be properly seen from 32 feet away.
have ½ to 1 inch margin on all four sides.
have bold and simple illustrations to help
convey the idea properly, easily and quickly.
minimum details; example-plain instead of printed sari, line drawing and
silhouettes in different colours.
have a light background and black or very dark
coloured illustrations to make them stand out and be easily visible.
have few colours to provide clarity and
write the number and the brief message for each
card at the back of it
store them in strong labelled envelopes.
Flash cards are presented in a slightly different manner than the rest
of the graphic aids. Use them in the following manner
rehearse the presentation of the flash cards
several times before demonstrating them to the audience.
check that the flash cards are arranged
according to their numbers before the talk begins.
make the audience sit either at the floor level
(in extension work) or on chairs in a semi-circular arrangement so that all can
if necessary, give a brief introduction before
displaying the flash cards.
stand and hold flash cards at chest level.
explain the first card and then slip it behind
the stack, or put it face down on the table; explain the next card and repeat
the procedure till the whole series of cards are over.
hold the flash cards so that their surfaces are
not obscured but are wholly visible to the learners; point out anything special
from above or below the card.
similar to flash cards except that the cards are spiral bound to enable the
instructor use them conveniently by placing it on the table and flipping the
cards to narrate the story.