aids are charts, diagrams, graphs, maps, flashcards, posters, pictures,
photographs, leaflets, folders, pamphlets, cartoons and comics. They are
two-dimensional materials having no depth which communicate facts, ideas and
relationships clearly through words, lines, drawings, symbols and pictures.
Graphic aids can serve many educational objectives for group teaching of 20 to
30 students. They help to:
Visualise abstract concepts which are difficult
to understand - concepts of size, rate of growth, inner structure of an object
or machine etc.
Reduce the amount of verbal talking and help in
giving clear explanations; visuals in charts, graphs, diagrams and posters, cut
Present the information in a specific and
systematic manner. Since majority of them are formal aids, they have to be very
systematic and organised.
They are also popular
because they are
Comparatively less expensive.
Easy to make as no technical skills are
required. Regular teachers, with some knowledge of drawing and who desire to be
creative can prepare them.
Easy to use. Very special arrangements and
machines are not required.
Easily usable and reusable as they are flat,
Graphic Aids - I
This section includes those graphic aids which have similar principles
of preparation, presentation and storage, and can be employed to do serious
classroom teaching in home science.
A graph is a diagramatic representation of numerical or quantitiative
data. Graphs can be in many forms.
In an area graph, the simple kinds of comparisons for approximate and
not exact differences in size can be made. Two-dimensional, geometrical shapes
such as squares, circles, rectangles are used to compare two or three items.
In a solid graph, three-dimensional, geometrical or pictorial symbols of
any other shape are used for comparison. It is more difficult than the area
graph as the comparison is to be made in terms of volume instead of area.
A line graph, also known as a 'curve' graph, is the most appropriate
type to represent two related data in an exact and complete manner. It is mostly used to combine quantity with time
progress, change and development of more than one data.
A bar graph is simple and easy to construct and is used to
comparisons of two or more data. It has a
zero base and the data is plotted with the help of horizontal or vertical bars.
The length of the bar represents the amount in terms of percentages, calories,
grams, mean, etc.
A pie graph is also known as 'Circle graph' or 'Sector graph'. Pie is
the circle representing the total numerical amount and each slice is a specific
percentage. It is ideal for showing fractional relations.
However, it is difficult to prepare and to understand if the segments or
percentages are too small, too many or too similar.
students learn better if actual percentages are included on the slices instead
of letting them judge by the size of the slices.
In a pictorial graph, conventional self explanatory symbols are used
instead of erecting bars. It is mostly used when the purpose is to advertise,
publicise, or motivate people for some action or product. The simple pictorial
symbols suggest rather than represent. A pictorial graph:
shows number rather than size for indicating
compares rather than shows isolated elements.
shows approximate quantities and not exact
amounts. So, though it provides realism, it cannot:
be read quickly.
provide precise information.
show fractional percentages.