The cingulate gyrus is connected with the olfactory cortex, the hypothalamus, the frontal cortex, the caudal portion of the orbital cortex, and the rostral portion of the insular cortex. Electrical stimulation of its rostral region in humans leads to changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration rate. Changes in temperature, erection of the hair, dilatation of pupils, increased salivation, and altered gastric motility have been observed in stimulation or lesion ex-periments in monkeys.
The cortex of the cingulate gyrus influences the hypothalamus and the autonomic nervous system. The limbic system obviously plays an important role in the regu-lation of basic vital processes, such as foodintake, digestion, and reproduction (see alsohypothalamus,, and amygdaloid body,). These are the primary vital functions that serve self-preservation as well as species preservation and are always accompanied by pleasurable sensations or reluctance. Hence, emotional states havebeen attributed to the limbic system.