Home | | Botany | | Botany | SOLANACEAE - the potato family

Chapter: 11 th 12th std standard Bio Botany plant tree Biology Higher secondary school College Notes

| Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail |

SOLANACEAE - the potato family

Systematic position : Class: Dicotyledonae Sub-class: Gamopetalae Series: Bicarpellatae Order: Polemoniales Family: Solanaceae

SOLANACEAE - the potato family

 

Systematic position

 

Class: Dicotyledonae

 

Sub-class: Gamopetalae

 

Series: Bicarpellatae

 

Order: Polemoniales

 

Family: Solanaceae

 

General characters

 

Distribution

 

Solanaceae includes about 90 genera and more than 2,800 species. The plants are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. In India, this family is represented by 21 genera and 70 species.

 

Habit

 

Mostly annual herbs (eg. Solanum melongena), a few shrubs eg. Solanum torvum (Sundaikaai) and rarely trees (S. giganteum).

 

Root

 

A branched tap root system.

 

Stem

 

Aerial, erect, spinous eg. Solanum xanthocarpum (Kandangkathiri), herbaceous, woody, cylindrical, branched, hairy (eg. Petunia hybrida and Nicotiana alata). In S. tuberosum, the stem is modified into tuber.

 

Leaf

 

Petiolate, usually alternate, sometimes opposite, simple, entire (eg. Petunia hybrida), exstipulate and showing unicostate reticulate venation. In S. xanthocarpum, the midrib and veins are found with yellowish spines.

 

Inflorescence

 

Solitary, axillary cyme (eg. Datura stramonium) or extra axillary scorpioid cyme called rhipidium (fan shaped cyme) as in S. nigrum or helicoid cyme as in S. tuberosum or umbellate cyme as in Withania somnifera.

 

Flower

 

Bracteate (eg. Petunia hybrida) or ebracteate eg. S. nigrum (Manathakkaali), ebracteolate, pedicellate, dichlamydeous, pentamerous, complete, actinomorphic (eg. Datura stramonium) or Zygomorphic (eg. Schizanthus pinnatus), bisexual and hypogynous.

 

Calyx

 

Sepals 5, green, gamosepalous, tubular and showing valvate aestivation eg. Datura metal (Oomathai) or imbricate aestivation (eg. Petunia hybrida), bell shaped and persistent (S. melongena).

 

Corolla

 

Petals 5, gamopetalous, funnel shaped, rotate, tubular, usually plicate (folded like a fan blade) showing twisted or valvate or imbricate aestivation.

 

Androecium

 

Stamens 5, epipetalous, alternate with the petals, usually not equal in length and filaments are inserted in the middle or basal region of corolla tube and basifixed. Anthers dithecous, introrse, usually basifixed or dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally or through apical pores (eg. S. nigrum). In Schizanthus pinnatus, two stamens are fertile and three stamens are reduced to staminodes.

 

Gynoecium

 

Ovary superior, bicarpellary and syncarpous. Ovary bilocular, carpels obliquely placed and ovules on axile placentation. In Datura species, bilocule becomes tetralocular by the formation of false septa. Style simple and undivided. Stigma bifid or capitate.

 

Fruit

 

A berry or septicidal capsule. In Lycopersicon esculentum, the fruit is a berry and in species of Datura and Petunia, the fruit is a capsule.

 

Seed

 

Endospermous.

 

Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail


Copyright © 2018-2020 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.