Defects of Rutherford's model
According to Rutherford's model, an atom consists of a positive nucleus with the electrons moving around it in circular orbits. However it had been shown by J. C. Maxwell that whenever an electron is subjected to acceleration, it emits radiation and loses energy. As a result of this, its orbit should become smaller and smaller Fig.. and finally it should drop into the nucleus by following a spiral path. This means that atom would collapse and thus Rutherford's model failed to explain stability of atoms.
Another drawback of the Rutherford's model is that it says nothing about the electronic structure of the atoms i.e., how the electrons are distributed around the nucleus and what are the energies of these electrons. Therefore, this model failed to explain the existence of certain definite lines in the hydrogen spectrum.
Postulates of Bohr's model of an atom
To overcome the above defects of Rutherford's model, Niels Bohr in 1913
gave a modification based on Quantum theory of radiation.
Rutherford's Nuclear model of a atom
1. An atom consists of a tiny positively charged nucleus at its centre.
2. The positive charge of the nucleus is due to protons. The mass of the nucleus, on the other hand, is due to protons and some neutral particles each having mass nearly equal to the mass of proton. This neutral particle, called neutron, was discovered later on by Chadwick in 1932. Protons and neutrons present in the nucleus are collectively also known as nucleons. The total number of nucleons is termed as mass number(A) of the atom.
3. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons that move around the nucleus with very high speed in circular paths called orbits. Thus, Rutherford's model of atom resembles the solar system in which the sun plays the role of the nucleus and the planets that of revolving electrons.
4. The number of electrons in an atom is equal to the number of protons in it. Thus, the total positive charge of the nucleus exactly balances the total negative charge in the atom making it electrically neutral. The number of protons in an atom is called its atomic number(Z).
5. Electrons and the nucleus are held together by electrostatic forces of attraction.
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