SOURCES OF JUSTICE :
sources of justice mean the sources of the idea of justice. Sir Earnest Barker has identified that there are four sources of the idea of the justice. They are
3. Economics and
1.Religion as the origin of Justice : Religion has always have been important source of justice. St. Thomas Acquinas of the great Roman Church in the middle ages had maintained that the words and deeds of Jesus, church fathers and preachers formed the basis of law and consequently of justice.
The Catholic church head, the pope is regarded even today as the fountain of justice. Similar are the views of the leaders of other religions of the world. In Hinduism Manu is regarded as the ancient law giver. This the scriptures of all religions and the preachings of religious leaders have always the force of law and justice.
2. Law of nature : It is another source of justice. Survival of the fittest, law of the jungle and might is right are sayings which refer to how justice was rendered where there was no civilized government. Besides there is in the heart of every human being a sense of doing the right and avoiding doing the wrong. This has led to concepts like, 'man is free', 'man should be treated equal', and 'man's brotherhood'.
3.Economics is another source of justice. Man by nature and needs, to satisfy his hunger and in course of time to improve his standard of living enters into economic activities. When several men and organizations attempt to do the same, differences, conflicts and clashes take place. These lead to settlement procedures. These form the basis of justice and law.
4. Ethics : This is yet another source of justice. The underlying principle is that rendering of justice should have its bases on morals and sense of doing the right thing. No one should be punished for an offence which he has not committed or not done. But the guilty should not be left out without punishment. This kind of justice based on ethics first originated in England when there was no democracy. The king or queen in England was regarded as the 'keeper of the conscience' and 'fountain of justice'.
Evolution of justice :
Justice is essentially a normative concept, cutting across the domains of religion, ethics and law, though its ramifications cover social, political and economic domains. So great is the diversity of its connotations that it is not easy to abstract to one specific meaning. Generally justice is associated with judicial organizations.