The word 'nation' is derived from the Latin word 'natio' hich means birth or race. The terms nation and state are used as synonym.
According to Leacock, a nation is a body of people united by common descent and language.
But the modern writers do not emphasise the racial aspects so much as the psychological and spiritual. It has acquired a political meaning in the recent times.
People who share common ideas and naturally linked to gether by some affinities and united are now called a nation. In the case of state feeling of oneness is not necessary as in the case of the four elements constituting the State.
Since the Second World War (1939-1945) the theory of 'one nation, one state' has become the practical politics with all nations and new nation states have been created after the Second World War. After 1947 India became the nation state.
If a nation with self - government becomes independent, a nation state comes into existence.
Government is often used with the 'state' as synonym.
But both the government and the state are two different entities. There are differences between the state and the government.
1. State consists of population, territory, government and sovereignty.
2. State possesses original powers.
3. State is permanent and continues forever.
4. State is abstract and invisible.
1. Government is part of the state.
2. Powers of the government are derived from the state.
3. Government is temporary. It may come and go.
4. Government is concrete and is visible.