MEANING AND SCOPE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
Jean Bodin (1530 - 1596) a French political philosopher coined the term 'Political Science'. Political science is a branch of social science. The study of Political science is of great significance and importance in the present day 'Global village'.
Political Science is the study of the state. According to Garner Political science begins and ends with the state. It may bedefined as the study of man in the process of governing himself.
According to Catlin, politics means either activities of political life or the study of those activities, which are generally treated as activities of the various organs of government.
According to R.N. Gilchrist, political science deals with general problems of the state and government. The great Greek political philosopher, Aristotle (384 - 322 B.C.) was the first thinker to use the term 'politics'. The term 'Politics' is derived from the Greek word 'Polis' which means city - state.
Polis or city - state was a small independent self - contained political society. Greeks did not make any distinction between politics and society. These Greek city - states of ancient times provide an ideal point for the beginning of a systematic study of political science.
Unlike, the ancient Greeks, we live in a large territorial states today. Greek meaning of the state can be extended to the study of the modern state. In the words of the French schloar, Paul Janet, political science is that part of social science which treats the foundations of the state and principles of government.
The term 'scope' refers to the subject matter or the boundaries of political science. The international Political Science Association at its Paris conference in 1984 discussed, the scope of the subject political science and marked out the subject matter as follows :
Regional and local government.
Economic and social functions of government.
Comparative political institutions.
Groups and associations
Participation of the citizen in the government and administration.
International organization and administration
Broadly speaking, the scope of political science may be divided into three parts:
1)Scope of political science concerning the state.
2)Scope of political science with reference to human rights.
3)Scope of political science in relation to government.
Present Form Historical Form Ideal Form of the state of the state of the state
In political science, we study the present form of the state Its aims and objectives and the means adopted by the state to achieve its objectives. This aspect of the study of political science has been termed by Gettell as the analytical study of the state.
The present form of the state is the result of its historical development. Political science makes a historical analysis of the origin of the state and the theories of the state.
The study of political science has to predict the future of the state that is how it ought to be. According to Gettell political science is a historical investigation of what the state has been, an analytical study of what the state is and a politico - ethical discussion of what the state should be.
The citizens have their civil, political and economic rights. These rights have to be preserved and protected by the State for the welfare of its citizens.
Stephen Leacock said that, political science deals with government. A state cannot exist without government. Government is the working agency of the state. The different forms of government, various organs of government, political parties, local self - government, judiciary, and internationalism are covered by the political science.