NORMATIVE / EMPIRICAL STUDIES:
There are two types of political theories:
Normative or prescriptive
Empirical or descriptive
Normative or prescriptive theory is based on postulates, deals, assumptions or values. It concerns itself on what ought to be. It focuses the attention on:
1.Good order of the society. 2.Ends of the state.
The works of Plato's Republic, Rousseau's Social Contract are the examples of normative type. To say that, India should not adopt presidential system of government is to make normative. This statement can be accepted or rejected but it cannot be proved or disproved.
Empirical or descriptive is based on state structure, political process etc, a system requiring knowledge of a subject by actual experience. Max Weber in his book 'Bureaucracy'.
Graham Wallas in his book 'Human Nature in Politics' and Arthur Bentley in his book 'Process of Government' gave an empirical dimension to the study of politics. To say that one political party has more electoral support than the other is to make an empirical statement. This statement is based on facts and facts are verifiable.
THE TWO FACES OF POLITICAL SCIENCE:
Conflict and co-operation are the two faces of political science. As a matter of fact, they are two sides of the same coin.
Conflicts are not desirable but unavoidable and inevitable in human society. Conflictsmay arise due to many factors like social, economic, cultural and psychological. Whatever may be the degree or stage of conflict, solution has to be found out to solve it.
The state is the final authority in society. It finds solution in the form of integration. State enacts laws, rules and procedures for society. The state can also use force through police, the army and the prisons. But is should be used as a last resort. To be preciseforce should be used as the very, very last resort. Education plays a major role in the process of integration. The newspapers, the radio, the television and internet are important. Welfare of the people is the aim of every state. With the advancement of science and technology, a new set of conflicts are not ruled out.
It is the responsibility of the state to solve the conflicts paving way for the welfare of the people. And of course, there is no denying the fact that, that is the aim of the state.