POLITICAL SCIENCE AS ART OR SCIENCE:
Aristotle, the father of political science considered political Science as the master of all sciences. Writers like Laski, Burke and Maitland used the title politics instead of political science. Some other Writers like Godwin, Vico, Hume, Bodin, Hobbes, Montesquieu used the title political science Professor Maitland once wrote, ' When I see a good set of examination questions headed by the words 'Political Science', I regret not the questions but the title. Buckle observed in the present state of knowledge, politics far from being a science is one of the most backward of all arts'. There is a great deal of controversy over the question whether political science is a science or art. Science means a body of systematized knowledge arranged on certain principles.
Art is a systematic knowledge to the solution of problems of human life. Physical science like physics, chemistry etc., follow the scientific method while studying physical phenomena. For example, law of gravity. If you throw a ball upwards, it will come down due to law of gravitation. Similarly, two parts of hydrogen and one part of oxygen constitute water. If you do it anywhere any number of times the result will be the same, correct and exact.
Social sciences like history, sociology, political science, economics also follow the scientific method while studying social phenomena. Laboratory tests are not possible in social sciences.
The basic difference lies in the fact that physical sciences study about matter whereas social sciences study about human beings.Hence the results obtained in physical sciences are precise, perfect and exact at all times. That is not possible in social sciences. This does not mean that political science claim to be a science can be denied.
It is true that political science cannot be an exact science, since its laws and conclusions cannot be expressed in precise terms and it cannot predict political events accurately. Besides social and political relationships are constantly changing and what may be true of them today may not be true in the future. Hence political science can be called both a science and an art.